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the duke of York were defeated by the French, wrote, while resident here, a poetical description of under gen. Brune, with great loss, 19 Sept. 1799. the islands. There was an awful hurricane here, 2. In another battle, fought 2 Oct. same year, the 31 Oct. 1780, and by another, a third of the houses was duke gained a victory over Brune; but on the destroyed, and the shipping driven ashore, 20 July, 6th, the duke was defeated, before Alkmaer, and on 1813. A large iron dry dock here, which cost the 20th entered into a convention, by which his 250,000l., was towed from the Medway to the Berarmy was exchanged for 6000 French and Dutch mudas, in June and July, 1869. Governors, sir Fred. prisoners in England.

E. Chapman, 1867; gen. J. H. Lefroy, March,

1871. BERGEN-OP-ZOOM, in Holland. This place, whose works were deemed impregnable, was

BERNAL COLLECTION of articles of taken by the French, 16 Sept. 1747, and again in

taste and virtù, formed by Ralph Bernal, Esq., many 1795. An attempt, made by the British under years chairman of committees of ways and mean's

He died 26 Aug. 1851. general sir T. Graham (afterwards lord Lynedoch), in the house of commons. to carry the fortress by storm, was defeated ; after The sale in March, 1856, lasted 31 days, and enorforcing an entrance, their retreat was cut off, and mous prices were given. The total sum realised was a dreadful slaughter'ensued; nearly all were cut to 62,680l. 68. 8d. pieces or made prisoners, 8 March, 1814.

BERNARD, MOUNT ST., so called from a BERGERAC, France. Here John of Gaunt, monastery founded on it by Bernardine Menthon in then earl of Derby, defeated the French, in 1344, high, covered with perpetual snow. Hannibal, it is

962. Velan, its highest peak, is about 8000 feet and here a temporary treaty of peace between the Catholics and Protestants, establishing liberty of said, conducted the Carthaginians by this pass into conscience, was signed 17 Sept. 1577.

Italy (218 B.C.); and by the same route, in May,

1800, Bonaparte led his troops to Italy before the BERKELEY CASTLE, Gloucestershire, was battle of Marengo, 14 June. On the summit of begun by Henry I. in 1108, and finished in the next

Great St. Bernard is the ancient monastery still reign. Here Edward II. was cruelly murdered by held by a community of monks, who entertain the contrivance of his queen Isabella (a princess of travellers. France), and her paramour, Mortimer, earl of

BERNARDINES, or WHITE MONKS, a March, 21 Sept. 1327. Mortimer was hanged at the

strict order of Cistercian monks, established by St. Elms, near London, 29 Nov. 1330; and Edward III. confined his mother in her own house at Castle

Bernard of Clairvaux, about 1115. He founded

many monasteries. Rising, near Lynn, in Norfolk, till her death, 1357.

BERNE, the sovereign canton of Switzerland, BERLIN (capital of Prussia, in the province joined the Swiss League, 1352; the town Berne was of Brandenburg), alleged to have been founded by made a free city by the emperor Frederick, May, the margrave Albert the Bear, about 1163. Its five 1218; it successfully resisted Rudolph of IIapsburg, districts were united under one magistracy, in 1714; | 1288. It surrendered to the French under general and it was subsequently made the capital of Prussia Brune, 12 April, 1798. The town has bears for its and greatly improved by the sovereigns. It was arms, and some of these animals are still maintained taken and held by the Russians and Austrians, 9-13 on funds specially provided for the purpose. It was Oct. 1760. Establishment of the Academy of made capital of Switzerland, 1848. Sciences, 1702; of the university, 1810. On 27 Oct. 1806, after the battle of Jena (14 Oct.), the BERRY (the ancient Biturigum regis), central French entered Berlin; and from this place Napo- France, held by the Romans since the conquest by leon issued the famous Berlin decree, an interdict Cæsar (58-50 B.c.) till it was subdued by the Visiagainst the commerce of England, 20 Nov. It de- goths; from whom it was taken by Clovis in A.D. clared the British islands to be in a state of block- 507. It was erected into a duchy by John II. in ade, and ordered all Englishmen found in countries 1360, and was not incorporated into the royal dooccupied by French troops to be treated as prisoners mains till 1601. of war. Un 5 Nov. 1808, Napoleon entered into a convention with Prussia, by which he remitted to BERSAGLIERI, the sharpshooters of the SarPrussia the sum due on the war-debt, and withdrew dinian army, first employed about 1848. many of his troops to reinforce his armies in Spain.

BERWICK-ON-TWEED, a fortified town The railway to Magdeburg opened 10 Sept. 1841 The first constituent assembly held here' 21 June, 1842

on the north-east extremity of England, the theatre An insurrection commenced here

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March, 1848

of many bloody contests while England and ScotBerlin was declared in a state of siege

land were two kingdoms; it was claimed by the The continuation of this state was declared to be Scots because it stood on their side of the river. Here illegal without its concurrence by the lower John Baliol did homage for Scotland, 30 Nov. 1292.

25 April, 1849 It was annexed to England in 1333; and after havA treaty of peace between Prussia and Saxony was

ing been taken and retaken many times, was finally signed

· 21 Oct. 1866 The victorious army entered Berlin, 20 Sept, 1866; ceded to England in 1482. In 1551 it was made and 16 June, 1871.

independent of both kingdoms. The town surSee Prussia, 1866, 1871.

rendered to Cromwell in 1648, and to general Monk

in 1659. Since the union of the crowns (James I. BERLIN.WORK, see Embroidery.

1603), the strong fortifications have been neglected. BERMUDAS or SUMMERS' Isles, a group BESSARABIA, a frontier province of European in the North Atlantic ocean, discovered by Juan Russia, part of the ancient Dacia. After being Bermudas, a Spaniard, in 1522, but not inhabited possessed by the Goths, Huns, &c., it was conquered until 1609, when sir George Summers was cast by the Turks, 1474, seized by the Russians, 1770, away upon them. They were settled by stat. 9 and ceded to them in 1812. James I., 1612. Among the exiles from England during the civil war was Waller, the poet, who BESSEMER STEEL, see Stecl.

. 12 Nov.



BETHLEHEM now contains a large convent, BHURTPORE (India), capital of Bhurtpore, enclosing, as is said, the very birthplace of Christ ; was besieged by the British, 3 Jan. 1805, and ata church erected by the empress Helena in the form tacked five times up to 21 March, without success. of a cross, about 325; a chapel, called the Chapel of After a desperate engagement with Holkar, the the Nativity, where they pretend to show the manger Mahratta chief, 2 April, 1805, the fortress was surin which Christ was laid ; another, called the Chapel rendered to general Lake. By a treaty, the rajah of Joseph; and a third, of the Holy Innocents. of Bhurtpore agreed to pay twenty lacs of rupees, Bethlehem is much visited by pilgrims.– The Beth- ceded territories that had been granted to him, and lehemite monks existed in England in 1257. delivered his son as hostage, 17 April, 1805. On

the rajah's death, during a revolt against his son, BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL (so called from Bhurtpore was taken by storm, by lord Combermere, having been originally the hospital of St. Mary of 18 Jan. 1826; see India. Bethlehem), a royal foundation for the reception of lunatics, incorporated by Henry VIII. in 1547. The BIANCHI (Whites), a political party at Floold Bethlehem Hospital, Moorfields, erected in 1676, rence, in 1300, in favour of the Ghibelines or impepulled down in 1814, was built in imitation of the rial party, headed by Vieri de' Cerchi, opposed the Tuileries at Paris. The present hospital in St. Neri (or Blacks), headed by Corso de' Donati. The George's-fields was begun April, 1812, and opened | latter banished their opponents, among whom was in 1815. In 1856 extensive improvements were

the poet Dante, in 1302. “Bianchi"

were also compleied under the direction of Mr. Sydney Smirke. male and female penitents, clothed in white, who

travelled through Italy in Aug. 1399; and were BETHNAL GREEN, E. London, a poor, suppressed by pope Boniface IX., 1400. populous parish ; said to have been the seat of Henry de Montfort, hero of the Blind Beggar of Bethnal

BIARCHY. When Aristodemus, king of Sparta, Green” (Percy Ballads). Many churches have been died, he left two sons, twins, Eurysthenes and recently erected by the instrumentality of bishop Procles; and the people not knowing to whom preBlointield and others, and the district has been much

cedence should be given, placed both upon the favoured by the baroness Burdett-Coutts. The East throne, and thus established the first biarchy, 1102 Landon Museum here, a branch of that at South

The descendants of each reigned for about Kensington, was opened by the prince of Wales, 24

800 years. Herodotus. June, 1872. Sir Richard Wallace lent to it for a

BIARRITZ, a bathing-place near Bayonne. year a collection of fine pictures and valuable curio- Here resided the comtesse de Montijo, and her sities.

daughter Eugénie, empress of the French, till her BETHUNE, France, an independent lordship marriage, 29 Jan. 1853. It was frequently visited since the 11th century, was annexed to the monarchy by the emperor and empress. by the treaty of Utrecht, 1713, after several changes. BIBERACH (Wurtemberg). Here Moreau BETTING-HOUSES, affording much tempta

twice defeated the Austrians, -under Latour, 2 Oct. tion to gaming, and consequent dishonesty, in the 1796, and under Kray, 9 May, 1800. lower classes, were suppressed by an act passed in BIBLE (from the Greek biblos. a book), the 1853 (16 & 17 Vict. c. 119). A Pari-mutuel, or name especially given to the Holy Scriptures, The mutual betting machine, in Aug., and the Knights- Old Testament is said to have been collected and bridge Exchange," a beiting company, 2 Nov., 1870, arranged by Ezra between 458 and 450 B.C. The were declared illegal, see kuces.

Apocrypha are considered as inspired writings by

the Roman Catholics, but not by the Jews and ProBEVERLEY, E. Yorkshire, the Saxon Bever- testants; see Apocrypha. lac, or Beverlega. St. John of Beverley, archbishop of York, founded a stately monastery here,

OLD TESTAMENT. and died 721; and on his account the town received Genesis contains the history of the world honours from Athelstane, William I., and other

from B.C. 4004—1635

Exodus sovereigns. It was disfranchised for corruption in


Leviticus. 1870, after a long investigation.



BEYROUT (the ancient Berytus), a seaport of Job
Syria, colonised from Sidon. It was destroyed by Joshua

from 1451-1420 an earthquake, 566; was rebuilt, and was alter- Judges. nately possessed by the Christians and Saracens;

ist and 2nd Samuel and after many changes, fell into the power of Amu

ist and 2nd Kings

1015- 562 rath IV. It was taken during the Egyptian revolt ist and 2nd Chronicles

1004— 536 hy Ibrahim Pacha, in 1832. The total defeat of the Book of Psalms (principally by David). 1063--1015 Egyptian army by the allied British, Turkish, and Austrian forces, and evacuation of Beyrout (the * In April, 1865, was published a proposal for raising Egyptians losing 7000 in killed, wounded, and pri- a fund for exploring Palestine in onler to illustrate the soners, and twenty pieces of cannon), took place to

Bible by antiquarian and scientific investigation. The Oct. 1840. Sir C. Napier was the English admiral

first meeting was held 22 June, 1865, the archbishop of

York in the chair ; see Palestine. engaged. Beyrout suffered greatly in consequence

† The division of the Bible into chapters has been of the massacres in Syria in May 1860. In Nov. ascribed to archbishop Lanfranc in the uth, and to arch1860 above 27,000 persons were said to be in danger bishop Langton in the 13th century : but T. Hartwell of starving; see Syria.

Horne considers the real anthor to have been cardinal

Hugo de Sancto Caro, about the middle of the 13th cenBHOOTAN, a country north of Lower Bengal, tury. The division into sections was commenced by with whom a treaty was made 25 April, 1774. After

Rabbi Nathan (author of a Concordance), about 1445, ani fruitless negotiations, Bhootan was invaded by the completed by Athras, a Jew. in 1661. The present liviBritish in Dec. 1864, in consequence of injurious Robert Stephens, in his Greek Testament (1551) and in treatment of an envoy; see India, 1864-5.

his Lutin Bible (1536-7).

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about 1520

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1425-II20 • 1322--1312

1171-1017 1290



Proverbs written

about B.C. 1000 700

about 1456 ; the first dated 1462 ;-Coptic, and or 3rd Song of Solomon

about 1014

century ; Ethiopic; Armenian, 4th or 5th century : Ecclesiastes.

about 977

Slavonic, gth century; and the Morso-Gothic, by Clfilas, Jonah

about 862

the apostle of the Goths, about 360, a manuscript copy Joel

about 800

of which, called the Codex Argenteus, is at Upsal. Hosea

about 785- 725

The Psalms were translated into Saron by bishop Amos

about 787

Aldhelm, about 706 ; Cædmon's metrical paraphrase Isaiah

about 260- 698 of a portion of the Bible, about 680 ; and the Gospels Micah

about 750 710

by bishop Egbert, about 721 ; parts of the Bible by Nahum

about 713

Bede, in the 8th century. Zephaniah

about 630 Jeremiah.

about 629- 588


about 588

MS. paraphrase of the whole Bible at the Bodleian Habakkuk

about 626

Library, Oxford, dated by Usher . Daniel.

from 607– 534 Versions (from the Vulgate) by Wickliffe and his Ezekiel

595- 574

followers (above 170 MS. copies extant) . 1356-84 Obadiah

about 587

[Part published by Lewis, 1731 ; by Baber, 1810; Ezra.

about 536– 456 the whole by Madden and Forshall, at Oxford 1850.) Esther.

about 521 - 495 William Tyndale's version of Matthew and Mark Haggai

about 520

from the Greek printed, 1524 ; of the whole New Zechariah

about 520
Testament, 1525; 6 editions

1525-30 Nehemiah

about 446 434

Miles Coverdale's version of the whole Bible; print-

about 397
ing finished

. 4 Oct. 1535
[Ordered by Henry VIII. to be laid in the choir of

every church, “ for every man that will to look GOSPELS by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,

and read therein.") B.C. 5--A.D. 33

T. Matthews' (said to be fictitious name for John Acts of the Apostles

A.D. 33-65 Rogers) version (partly by Tyndale* and CoverEPISTLES-ist and 2nd of Paul to Thessalonians abt. 54

1537 Galatians

58 Cranmer's Great Bible (Matthews' revised), the first Ist Corinthians,

printed by authority

1539 and Corinthians 60 [Bible reading prohibited]

1542-57 Romans

60 Geneva version, " Breeches Bible," (the first with Of James 60 figured verses), 1540-1557; published

1560 Ist of Peter

60 Archbishop Parker's, called “The Bishops' Bible” To Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Hebrews, (eight of the fourteen persons employed being Philemon 64 bishops)

1568 Titus, and ist to Timothy


King James' Bible, the present authorised version 2nd to Timothy 66 ---revision began 1604 ; published

16 and of Peter

66 [Dr. Benjamin Blayney's revised edition, 1769.) Or Jude

66 Roman Catholic authorised version : New Testaist, 2nd, and 3rd of John after

90 ment, at Rheims, 1582 ; Old Testament, at Douay, Revelation

1609-10 Authorised Jewish English version

1851-61 The most ancient copy of the Hebrew Scriptures existed The revision of the English version now in use was re

at Toledo, called the Codex of Hillel ; it was of very commended by the bishops in convocation, 10 Feb. early date, probably of the 4th century after Christ; 1870. The committee, including eminent scholars of some say about 60 years before Christ. The copy of

various denominations, appointed in May, held their Ben Asher, of Jerusalem, was made about 1100.

first meeting at Westminster Abbey 22 June, 1870. The reputed oldest copy of the Old and New Testament

MODERN TRANSLATIONS. I in Greek, is that in the Vatican, which was written in

X. TEST. BIBLE. the 4th or 5th century. Mai's edition appeared in 1857.

Flemish The next in age is the Alexandrian Coder (referred to

1477 the sth century) in the British Museum, presented by

Spanish (Valencian)

1478 German

It has been the Greek patriarch to Charles I. in 1628.

1522 1530

English printed in England, edited by Woide and Baber, 1786



French 1821.--Colex Ephrdemi, or Codex Regius, ascribed to


Swedish the 5th century, in the Royal Library, Paris : published

1526 1541

Dar by Tischendorf in 1843.

1524 1550 Dutch .

1475 The Codex Sinaiticus, probably written in the 4th cen

Italian tury, was discovered by M. Constantine Tischendorf,

1471 at St, Katherine's monastery in 1844 and 1859, and pre




Russian (parts) sented to the present czar of Russia, at whose cost a


1822 Welsh .

1567 splendid edition was published in 1862.


1574 The Hebrew Psalter was printed at Bologna in 1477: The

Bohemian complete Hebrew Bible was first printed by Soncino in


1551 1561 Italy in 1488, and the Greek Testament (edited by


Virginian Indians Erasmus) at Rotterdam, in 1526. Aldus's edition was

1663 Irish,

1602 1686 printed in 1518 ; Stephens' in 1546 ; and the textus re


1743 ceptus (or received text) by the Elzevirs in 1624.


1712 1748 Manks.

1748 1767 TRANSLATIONS. Turkish


1814 The Old Testament, in Greek, termed the Septuagint


1808 1822 (which see), generally considered to have been made by

Modern Greek.

1638 1821 order of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, about


1814 1823 286 or 285 B.C.; of this many fabulous accounts are given.

The British and Foreign Bible Society continue to Origen, after spending twenty-eight years in collating make and print translations of the Bible in all the Mss., commenced his polyglot Bible at Cæsarea in A.D.

dialects of the world; see Polyglot. 231 ; it contained the Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, all made in or about the end * He was strangled at Antwerp, 6 Oct. 1536, at the century after Christ.

instigation of Henry VIII, and his council." His last The following are ancient versions :-Syriac, ist or 2nd words were, “Lord, open the king of England's eyes!" century; the old Latin version, early in the 2nd cen


editions of his Testament had then been published. tury, revised by Jerome, in 384; who, however, com- The Bible of Every Land," ed. 1860, published by pleted a new version in 405, now called the VULGATE, Messrs. Bagsters, London, is full of information respect(which see); the first edition was printed (without date) ing ancient and modern versions of the Bible.

1588 1589 1488



the poor

· 1750

• 1545

BIBLE DICTIONARIES. The most re- the reputed bequest of the Biddenden maids, two markable are Calmet's “Dictionary of the Bible," sisters named Chulkhurst. In 1656, Wm. Horner, 1722–8; Kitto’s“ Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature,” the rector, was non-suited in an attempt to add the 18.43 and 1851; and Smith's “ Dictionary of the “Bread and Cheese lands” to his glebe. Bible," 1860, see Concordances.*

BIGAMY. The Romans branded the guilty BIBLE SOCIETIES. Among the principal party with an infanous mark; and in England the and oldest societies which have made the dissemina- punishment, formerly, was death. An act respecttion of the Scriptures a collateral or an exclusive ing it was passed 5 Edw. I. 1276. Viner's Statutes. object, are the following:

Declared to be felony, without benefit of clergy, i

James I. 1603. Punishable, by imprisonment or Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 1698 transportation, 35 Geo. III. 1794. Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts

BIG BETHEL (Virginia, U.S.). On 10 June, Society in Scotland, for Promoting Christian Know

1861, the Federals were defeated in an attack on ledge Scriety for Promoting Religious Knowledge amo

some Confederate batteries at this place.

BILBOA (N.E. Spain), founded about 1300; Naval and Military Bible Society

1780 was taken by the French and held a few days July Sunday School Society. French Bible Society

1785 1795. It was delivered from the Carlists by Espar

1792 British and Foreign Bible Society,t began 1803 ; or

tero, assisted by the British, 24 Dec. 1836. ganised

1804 BILL OF EXCEPTIONS. The still existHibernian Bible Society City of London Auxiliary Bible Society

1800 ing right of tendering such a bill to a judge, either A ball from the pope, Pius VII., against Bible

to his charge, to his definition of the law, or to other Societies appeared in


terrors of the court, at a trial between parties, was

provided by the 2nd statute of Westminster, 13 Edw. BIBLIA PAUPERUM (the Bible for the I. 1284. poor), consisting of engravings illustrating scripture history, with texts, carved in wood, a “block book,'

BILL OF PAINS, &c.; see Queen Caroline. printed early in the 15th century, was compiled by BILL OF RIGHTS, &c. ; see Rights. Bonaventură, general of the Franciscans, about 1260. A fac-simile was published by J. Russell Smith, in

BILLIARDS. The French ascribe their inven1859.

tion to Henrique Devigne, an artist, about 1571.

Slate billiard tables were introduced in England in BIBLIOGRAPHY, the Science of Books. 1827. Gesner's “ Bibliotheca Universale" appeared .

BILLINGSGATE, the fish-market in London, De Bure's “ Bibliographie Instructive

1763 is said to have derived its name from Belinus MagPeignot, Manuel

1823 Horne, introduction to the Study of Bibliography : 1814 but Stow thinks from a former owner. It was the

nus, a British prince, the father of king Lud, 400 B.C., Brunet's Manuel du Libraire, ist edit. 1810 : 5th ed. 1862-5 old port of London, and the customs were paid bere Seriptural, Orme, Bibliotheca Biblica, 1824 ; Darling, Bibliographica


under Ethelred II., A.D. 979. Stou. Billingsgate Clasiral, the works of Fabricius, Clarke, and was made a free market, 1699. Chamberlain. Fish Dibulin.

by land-carriage, as well as sea-borne, now arrives English, Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica

1824 daily here. In 1849, the market was extended and Lowndes, Bibliographer's Manual, 1834 ; new ed. by

improved, and a new one was erected in 1852, Mr. Bohn British Catalogues, by Sampson Low

1857-62 Bunning, architect.

1835-62 French, Querard .

1828-64 BILLS OF EXCHANGE were invented by BIBLIOMANIA (or book madness) very much

the Jews as a means of removing their property from prevailed in 1811, when Dr. Dibdin's work with this

nations where they were persecuted, 1160. Anderson.

Bills are said to have been used in England, 1307. title was published ; see Boccaccio.

The only legal mode of sending money from England, BICOCCA, N. Italy. Lautrec and the French 4 Richard II. 1381. Regulated, 1698 ; first stamped, were here defeated by Colonna and the Imperialists, 1782; duty advanced, 1797; again, June 1801 ; and 29 April, 1522, and Francis thereby lost his con

since. It was made capital to counterfeit bills of quests in Milan.

exchange in 1734. In 1825, the year of disastrous

speculations in bubbles, it was computed that there BIDASSOA. The 'allied army under lord Wel- were 400 millions of pounds sterling represented by lington, having driven the French from Spain, bills of exchange and promissory notes. The present effected the passage of this river 8 Oct. 1813, and amount is not supposed to exceed 50 millions. The entered France.

many statutes regarding bills of exchange were conBIDDENDEN MAIDS. A distribution of bills of exchange passed 3 Vict. July, 1839;. Great

solidated by act 9 Geo. IV. 1828. An act regulating bread and cheese to the poor takes place at Bidden- alterations were made in the law on the subject by den, Kent, on Easter Mondays, the expense being defrayed from the rental of twenty acres of land, 17 & 18 Vict. c. 83 (1854), and 18 & 19 Vict

. c. 67

(1855). Days of grace were abolished in the case of An “Index to the Persons, Places, and Subjerts oc

bills of exchange payable on sight in Aug. 1871. curring in the Holy Scriptures,” compiled by B. Vincent, Forgery of bills to a large amount to obtain discount editor of the present work, was published by the queen's was detected by the bank of England, 1 March, 1873. printers in 1848. † This society had issued 24,247,667 copies of the

BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR LONDON. Bible or parts of ic up to Jan. 1857; in May, 1863, the These bills were first compiled by order of Cromwell, number had risen to 43,044,334 ; and in 1867 t 52,669.089: about 1538, 30 Men. VIII., but in a more formal and In 1857 they published a catalogue of their library, which

recognised manner in 1603, after the great plague contains a large number of remarkable editions of the *Bible. The foundation-stone of their new Central hall,

of that year. No complete series of them has been Queen Victoria-street, London, was laid by the prince of preserved. They have been superseded by the Wales, 11 June, 1866.

weekly returns of the registrar-general, since 1837.

1 800






The following show the numberz for London at de BIRCH TREE. The black (Betulu nigra), cennial periods :

brought from North America, 1736. The birch tree Christenings.

Burials. known as the Betula pumila, introduced into Kew 1780


20,507 gardens, England, by Mr. James Gordon, from 1790


18,038 North America, 1762. Hardy's Annals. 19,176

23,008 1810



BIRDS were divided by Linnæus into six orders 1820



(1735); by Blumenbach into eight (1805); and by 27,028 1840


1534 Cuvier, into six (1817). The most remarkable work's

20,774 1850



are those published by John Gould, F.R.S.; they are to consist of about 31 folio volumes of coloured

plates, &c. They now include the birds of Europe, Dirths.

Deaths. Asia, Australia, and Great Britain, besides mono1840.

502, 303


graphs of the humming-birds, &c. 1845


349.366 1849


440,339 1853 612,391

BIRKENHEAD (Cheshire), a modem town

421,097 1856



on the Mersey, opposite to Liverpool. The great 1858



dock here was projected by Mr. John Laird, con1859


441,790 structed by Mr. Rendell, and opened in Aug. 1847 684,048

422,721 | by lord Morpeth. In 1861 Birkenhead was made a 1861

696,406 1862

436 114 parliamentary borough, and Mr. Laird was elected

712,684 1863

first representative. Population in 1831, 200; in • 727.417

473,837 1864



1861, 57,649; in 1871, 65,971. See Wrecks, 1852. 1865



Births. Deaths.

see Burmese Empire and India. Births. Deaths. Births. Deaths. 1865, 748,069 490,909 | 113, 126 70,82: 144,970 93,154 1866, 753,876 500,689 113,639 71,273 146,237 93,598 Brummegem (Warwickshire), existed in the reign

BIRMINGHAM, formerly Bromwicham and 1867, 768,349 471,073 114,115 69,024 144,318 93,911 1868, 786,858 480,622 | 115,673 69,386 146,108 86,803

of Alfred, 872; and belonged to the Bermengchams, 1869, 773,381 494,828 | 113,395 75,789 | 145,659 89,573

at Domesday Survey, 1086. There were many 1870, 792,129 515,544 115,423 74,067 150,151 90,695 smythes" here in the time of Henry VIII. (Leland), 1871, 797,143 515,096 116,127 74,644 151,665 88,720 but its great importance commenced in the reigu of 1872, 824,646 492,065

William III. UNITED KINGDOM, 1872: Births, 1,092,616; Deaths, 665,208

Grammar school founded by Edward VI.

1552 IN LONDON AND SUBURBS. Besieged and taken by prince Rupert .

1043 Births. Deaths. Button manufactures established

1089 1854

84,084 ·

73,697 Soho works established by Matthew Boulton about 1856 57,786 1764; and steam engine works about

1774 1858 (Females, 43,400) 83,620 (Femolcs, 31,319) 63.882 Binningham Canal originated

1707 1862


60,950 Riots against persons commemorating the French 1864 102,187


14 July, 1791 1864 (Females, 54,862) 112,264

Theatre destroyed by fire

7 Aug 1792 1868 ( 56,127) 113,937

More commotions

Nov. 1800
Theatre burnt

7 Jan. 1820 BINARY ARITHMETIC, that which counts Polítical Union, T. Attwood, formed hy

Feb. 1831 by twos, for expeditiously ascertaining the property Birmingham made a borough by Reform Act (2 of numbers, and constructing tables, was invented

1832 by Leibnitz of Leipsic, about 1703. for the Binary Political Union dissolved itself

Towu-ball built


10 May, 1834 theory in chemistry, see Compound Radical.

Birmingham and Liverpool railway opened as the
Grand Junction

4 July, 1837 BINOMIAL ROOT, in Algebra, composed of London and Birmingham railway opened its entire only two parts connected with the signs plus or length.

17 Sept. 1838 minus; a term first used by Recorda, about 1550,

Great Chartist riot; houses burnt

15 July, 1839 when he published his Algebra. The celebrated

Town incorporated, and Police Act passed binomial theorem of Newton was first mentioned in

Meeting of British Association 1688. Hutton.

Queen's College incorporated
Corn Exchange opened

27 Oct. 1847 BIOGRAPHY (from the Greek bios, life, and Queen's College organised.

British Association (meet again). 12 Sept. 1849

.Jan. 1853 gruphö, 1 write), defined as “ history teaching by Public park opened (ground virtually given by example.” The book of Genesis contains the bio Mr. Adderley)

3 Aug. 1856 graphy of the patriarchs; and the Gospels that of New musie-hail opened

3 Sept. Christ. Plutarch wrote the Lives of Illustrious

Another park opened by the duke of Camüridge, Men; Cornelius Nepos, Lives of Military Com

100,000 persons preseut (ground given by loril manders; and Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve


i June, 1857

Death of G. F Muntz, M.P. Caesars (all three in the first century after Christ); John Bright elected M.P.

30 July,

10 Aug. 1857, and April, 1859 Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of the Philosphers (about The queen and prince consort visit Birmingham, 205).--Boswell's Life of Johuson (published in Warwick, &c., for the first time, and open Aston 1790) is the most remarkable English biography.


14-16 June, 1858 The Free Library opened

4 April, 1861 BIOLOGY, termed the science of life and living factory explosion : 9 killed

23 June, 1862 things, by Treviranus, of Bremen, in his work on

People's park purchased by corporation

Sept. 1864 New Exchange opened .

2 Jan. 1865 Physiology, published 1802-22. Biology includes The bank of Attwoods and Spooner stops payment zoology, anthropology, and ethnology (which see). and causes much distress

10 Mareh, Herbert Spencer's . Principles of Biology," pub- Meeting of British Association (3rdl) 6 Sept. lished 1865-67.

Stoppage of the “ Banking Company" 13 July, 1866

First annual horse show
Approximative: registration defective.

Great Reforin meeting .


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29 Aug.


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