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founded in 1836. It contained 14,000 inhabitants in Elizabeth. ---Sir Nicholas Bacon; Edward, lord Clinton;
sir Robert Dudley, afterwards earl of Le.cester; sir 1850, and 18,259 in 1855; about 30,000 in 1875. It was
William Cecil, afterwards lord Burleigh...
1558 made a bishopric in 1847. University founded, 1876. William, lord Burleigh (minister during nearly all the It was visited by the duke of Edinburgh, 1 March, 1869. reign); sir Nicholas Bacon, etc.,
Lord Burleigh; s.r Thomas Bromley; Robert Devereux, Adelphi (Greek for brothers), several streets on the
earl of Essex (a favorite); earl of Leicester; earl of south side of the Strand, London, erected about 1768 by Lincoln; sir Walter Mildmay; sir Francis Walsing. the brothers John, Robert, James, and William Adam, Lord Burleigh; Robert, earl of Essex; sir Christopher
1579 after whom the streets are named. ADELPHI THEATRE, Hatton, etc.
1587 built 1806, rebuilt 1858; see under Theatres.
Thomas Sackville, lord Buckhurst, afterwards earl of
Dorset; sir Thomas Egerton, afterwards lord Ellesmere Aden, a free port on the S.W. corner of Arabia, and viscount Brackley; sir Robert Cecil, etc...
1599 where in Dec. 1836 a British ship was wrecked and JAMES 1.--Thomas, earl of Dorset; Thomas, lord Ellesplundered. The sultan promised compensation, and
mere; Charles, earl of Nottingham; Thomas, earl of
Suffolk; Edward, earl of Worcester; Robert Cecil, afagreed to cede the place to the English. The sultan's terwards earl of Salisbury, etc...
1603 son refusing to fulfil this agreement to captain Haynes, Robert Cecil, carl of Sitlisbury; Thomas, lord Ellesmere; a naval and military force, under captain H. Smith, of
Henry, carl of Northampton; Charles, earl of Notting. ham; Thomas, earl of Suffolk, etc....
1609 the Volage, was despatched to Aden, which captured it, Henry, earl of Northampton; Thomas, lord Ellesmere; 19 Jan. 1839. It is now a garrison and coal depot for Edward, earl of Worcester; sir Ralph Winwood, Charles, Indian steamers, etc.
earl of Nottingham; Robert, viscount Rochester, afterwards earl of Somerset, etc....
1612 Adiaphorists (from adiaphora, indifferent things), Thomas, lord Ellesmere; Thomas, earl of Suffolk; Charles, a term applicd to Melanchthon and others, who were will
earl of Nottingham; sir George Villiers (a favorite),
afterwards viscount Villiers, and successively earl, ing give up certain things the Romanists as indif
marquess, and duke of Buckingham..
1615 ferent, about 1548.
Sir Henry Montagu, afterwards viscount Mandeville and earl of Manchester...
1620 Adige, a river in N. Italy, near which the Austrians Lionel, lord Cranfield, afterwards earl of Middlesex; Eddefeated the French on 26, 30 March, and 5 April, 1799. ward, earl of Worcester; John, carl of Bristol; John
Williams, dein of Westminster ; George Villiers, mar. Adjutators, see Agitators.
quess of Buckingham ; sir Edward Conway, etc,..... 1621 Administrations OF ENGLAND AND OF GREAT CHARLES I. --- Richard, lord Weston, afterwards earl of
Portland; sir Thomas Coventry, afterwards lord CoyBritain. Until the Restoration, 1660, there was not entry; Henry, earl of Manchester (succeeded by James, any cabinet in the modern sense. The sovereign was earl of Marlborough, who, in turn, gare place to Edaided by privy-councillors, varying in number, the men ward, lord, afterwards viscount, Conway); William and offices being frequently changed. The separation William Laud, archbishop 'of Canterbury ; Francis
Laud, bishop of London; sir Albert Morton, etc...... 1628 of the cabinet from the privy council became greater Coitington ; James, marquess of Hamilton ; Edward, during the reign of William III., and the control of the earl of Dorset ; sir John Coke ; sir Francis Winde
1035 chief, now termed the premier, began in the reign of
William Juxon, bishop of London; sir John Finch, afterAnne. “ The era of ministries may most properly be wards lord Finch; Francis, lord Cottington; Wentreckoned from the day of the meeting of the parliament worth, earl of Strassord; Algernon, earl of Northumafter the general election of 1698."- Macaulay.* For a
berland; James, marquess of Hamilton; Land, arch
bishop of Canterbury; sir Francis Windebank; sir fuller account of each administration since 1700, see sep
Henry Vane, etc..
1640 arate articles headed with the name of the PREMIER,
(The king beheaded, 30 Jan. 1649.) given below in italics.
COMMONWEALTH. --Oliver Cromwell, protector, named a
council, the number not to exceed 21 members, or be HENRY VIII.-Archbishop Warham; bishops Fisher and
less than 13...
1653 Fox; earl of Surrey, etc..
..... A.D. 1509 Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver, succeeded on the death Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, etc.,
1514 of his father. A council of officers ruled at Walling. Earl of Surrey, Tunstall, bishop of London, etc. . 1523 ford house..
1658 Sir Thomas More; bishops Tunstall and Gardiner, and CHARLES II. -Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clar
Cranmer (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury)... 1529 endon; George Monk, created duke of Albemarle; Ed. Archbishop Cranmer; lord Cromwell, afterwards earl of ward Montagu, created earl of Sandwich; lord Saye and
Essex; Thomas Boleyn, earl of Wiltshire, etc.... 1532 Sele; earl of Manchester; lord Seymour; sir Robert Thomas, duke of Norfolk; Henry, earl of Surrey; Thom.
1660 as, lord Audley; bishop Gardiner ; sir Ralph Sadler, George Monk, duke of Albemarle, made first commisetc. 1540 sioner of the treasury, etc.
1667 Lord Wriothesley; Thomas, duke of Norfolk; lord Lisle; “ Cabal” Ministry; Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arsir William Petre; sir William laget, etc... 1511 lington, Lauderdale (see Cabal)...
1670 EDWARD VI.-Lord Wriothesley, now earl of Southamp. Thomas, lord Clifford; Anthony, earl of Shaftesbury; ton, lord chancellor (expelled); Edward, earl of Hert
Henry, carl of Arlington; Arthur, carl of Anglesey; ford, lord protector, created duke of Somerset; John,
sir Thomas Osborne, created viscount Latimer; Henry lord Russell; Henry, earl of Arundel; Thomas, lord Coventry; sir George Carteret; Edward Seymour, etc. 1672
Seymour; sir William Paget; sir William Petre, etc. 1547 | Thomas, viscount Latimer, afterwards carl of Danby, John Dudley, late lord Lisle and earl of Warwick, created
made lord high treasurer....
.26 June, 1673 duke of Northumberland; John, earl of Bedford; bish- Artbur, earl of Essex (succeeded by Lawrence Hyde, afop Goodrich, sir William Cecil, etc...
1551 terwards earl of Rochester); Robert, earl of SunderMARY.-Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester ; Ed
1679 mund Bonner, bishop of London; William, marqness of
The king nominated a new council on 21 April, con. Winchester; sr Edward Hastings, etc....
1554 sisting of 30 members only, of whom the principal
were the great officers of state and great officers of
the household.. * Till 1850 the cabinet council usually consisted of the fol. Sidney, lord Godolphin; Lawrence, earl of Rochester; lowing twelve members : First lord of the treasury; lord Daniel, carl of Nottingham; Robert, earl of Sunder: chancellor; lord president of the council; chancellor of the laud; sir Thomas Chicheley; George, lord Dartmouth; exchequer; lord privy seal; home, foreign, and colonial secre. Henry, earl of Clarendon; earls of Bath and Radnor.. 1684 taries; first lord of the admiralty; president of the board of JAMES II.- Lawrence, earl of Rochester; George, martrade; president of the board of control; chancellor of the quess of Halifax; sir George Jeffreys, afterwards lord duchy of Lancaster. In 1830 the number was fifteen, and in- Jeffreys; Henry, earl of Clarendon; sir John Ernley; cluded the secretary-at war, the postmaster-general, and the viscount Preston, etc.
1685 chief secretary for Ireland. In the Palmerston-Russell rabi. The earl of Rochester was displaced, and John, lord Benet (which seei, the president of the poor-law board replaced lasyse, made first conmiss oner nf the treasury in his the secretary for Ireland. In 1868 the Gladstone cabinet con. room, 4 Jan. ; the carl of Sunderland made president sisted of 15; that of Mr. Disraeli, in Feb. 1874, of 12.
of the council; viscount Preston, secretary of state, arerag, duration ofa ministry bas been set down at four, five,
1687-8 and six years; but instances have occurred of the duration of The king left Whitehall in the night of 11 Dec., and, a ministry for much longer periods: sir Robert Walpole was quitting the kingdom, landed at Ambleteuse, in Franco, minister from 1721 to 1742 (21 years); Mr. Pitt, 1783 to 1801 Dec. 1038. (18 years); and lord Liverpool, 1812 to 1827 (15 years). Sev. William III. AND MARY. -Charles, viscount Mordaunt; eral ministries have not lasted beyond a few months, as the Thomas Osborne, earl of Danby, created marquess of Coalition Ministry in 1783, and the “ Talents” Ministry in Carmarthen, afterwarıls duke of Leeds; George, mar. 1806. The “ Short-lived” Administration lasted 10 to 12 Feb. quess of Halifax; Arthur Herbert, alterwards lord Tor. 1746.
rington; earls of Shrewsbury, Nottingham, and Sun.
derland; earl of Dorset and Middlesex; William, earl in the lords, on the Reform bill, 10 May; but resumes (afterwards duke) of Devonshire; lord Godolphin; lord
...18 May, 1832 Montagu; lord De la Mere, etc....
1689 Viscount Melbourne, etc....
.....July, 1834 Sidney, lord Godolphin; Thomas, earl of Danby; Richard
[Melbourne administration dissolved, Nov. 1834. The Hampden; Thomas, earl of Pembroke; Henry, vis
duke of Wellington held the seals of ofhce till the recount Sydney; Daniel, earl of Nottingham, etc... 1690 turn of sir Robert Peel from Italy, Dec. 1834.] Sir John Somers became lord Somers in 1697, and lord Sir Robert Peel ; lord Lyndhurst; duke of Wellington; chancellor; Charles Montagu, afterwards lord Halifax, earl of Aberdeen; etc..
Nov. and Dec. was made first commissioner of the treasury, 1 May, Viscount Melbourne, etc...
.. April, 1835 1698, succeeded by Ford, earl of Tankerville
1699 VICTORIA.- Viscount Melbourne, etc.. ....20 June, 1837 ANNE. - Sidney, lord (afterwards earl of) Godolphin;
Subsequent accessions: F. T. Baring; earl of ClarenThomas, earl of Pembroke, etc....
... May, 1702 don; T. B. Macaulay, etc. Viscount Melbourne re. Robert Harley, earl of Oxford; sir Simon Harcourt, etc. signed, and sir Robert Peel received the queen's com
1 June, 1711 mands to form a new administration, 8 May. This Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, made lord treasurer threó
command was withdrawn, and lord Melbourne returndays before the queen's death, etc... .30 July, 1714
ed to power..
......10 May, 1839 GEORGE I. -- Charles, earl of Halifax (succeeded on his Sir Robert Peel; duke of Wellington; lord Lyndhurst; death by the earl of Carlisle), etc. .
sir James Graham; earl of Aberdeen; lord Stanley, etc. Robert Walpole, first lord of the treasury, and chancellor
Aug. and Sept. 1841 of the exchequer, etc..
1715 (Accessions: Sidney Herbert; W. E. Gladstone, etc.) James (afterwards earl) Stanhope ; William lord Cowper, Lord John Russell; viscount Palmerston; earl Grey, etc. etc.. 1717
July, 1846 Charles, earl of Sunderland, etc..
1718 [Accessions: earl Granville; Mr. Fox Maule; earl of Robert Walpole, afterwards sir Robert Walpole, and earl Carlisle; sir Thomas Wilde, created lord Truro, etc.) of Orford, etc...
1721 Lord John Russell and the marquess of Lansdowne on the GEORGE II. - Robert Walpole continued..
1727 24 Feb. announced the resignation of ministers, owing (Sir Robert remained prime - minister twenty-one to their defeat on Mr. Locke King's motion respecting years, numerous changes occurring in the time; see the franchise; they informed parliament that, it hav. Walpole.)
ing been found impossible to construct a coalition minEarl of Wilminglon ; lord Hardwicke, etc.....
1742 istry, the queen, by the advice of the duke of WellingHenry Pelham, in the room of earl of Wilmington, de- ton, had called upon her late ministers to resume of ceased.
.Aug. 1743 fice. Lord Stanley (since carl of Derby), in the inter“Broad - bottom” administration-Henry Pelham; lord val, had been unable to form a cabinet.......3 March, 1851 Hardwicke, etc...
.Nov. 1744 Earl of Derby (late lord Stanley); lord St. Leonards; Ben“Short-lived" administration-earl of Bath; lords Win
jamin Disraeli; Spencer H. Walpole; earl of Malmes. chilsea and Granville.
10-12 Feb. 1746 bury; sir John Pakington; duke of Northumberland, Henry Pelham, etc., again.
.27 Feb. 1852 Thos. H. Pelham, duke of Newcastle ; earl of Holderness, Earl of Aberdeen ; lord John Russell; viscount Palmer. etc.... .. April, 1754 ston, etc...
.28 Dec. Duke of Devonshire; William Pitt, etc...... Nov. 1756 Various changes of offices took place; a fourth sec. Duke of Newcastle, and Mr. Pitt, afterwards earl of Chat. retary of state was appointed, by the separation of the ham, etc...
June, 1757 war from the colonial department; see Secretaries of GEORGE III. --Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Pitt's ministry, con
State. The retirement of lord J. Russell, 24 Jan. 1855, tinued....
1760 and a majority in the commons against ministers of Earl of Bute; lord Henley, etc...
May, 1762 157 (305 to 148), on Mi ebuck's motion respecting George Grenville; earls of Halifax and Sandwich, etc.
the conduct of the war, led to the resignation of lord
April, 1763 Aberdeen and his colleagues, 30 Jan. ; the cabinet was Marquess of Rockingham ; earl of Winchilsea, etc..July, 1765 reconstructed by Earl of Chatham ; duke of Grafton, etc.
. Aug. 1766 Viscount Palmerston ; lord Cranworth; etc. ......7 Feb. 1855 Duke of Grofion ; lord North, etc..
Dec. 1767 Secession of sir J. Graham, Mr. Gladstone, and Mr. Frederick, lored Vorth, earl Gower, etc.,
..Jan. 1770 S. Herbert. Accession of lord John Russell; earl of (Lord North was minister during the whole of the Clarendon; sir G. Grey; sir G. C. Lewis; sir W. MolesAmerican war. ]
.24 Feb. Marquess of Rockingham ; lord Camden; C. J. Fox; Ed.
On the second reading of the Foreign Conspiracy bill, mund Burke, etc....
. March, 1782 the government (defeated by a vote of censure being Earl of Shelburne (afterwards marquess of Lansdowne); passed by a majority of 19, on the motion of Mr. Milner William Pitt, etc....
19 Feb. 1858 "Coalition Ministry," duke of Portland ; lord North; Earl of Derby; Benjamin Disraeli; Spencer Walpole; lord C. J. Fox; Edmund Burke, etc..
.. April, 1783 Stanley; sir F. Thesiger (lord Chelmsford), etc.. 26 Feb. William l'itt; Henry Dundis, etc...
[The Derby administration, in consequence of a vote [During Mr. Pitt's long administration, numerous of want of confidence in it being carried by a majority changes in the ministry took place.)
of 13, 10 June, 1859, resigned the next day. Earl GranHenry Addington ; duke of Portland ; lord Eldon, etc.
ville failed to form an administration.)
March et seq. 1901 Viscount Palmerston ; lord John (since carl) Russell, etc. William Pilt, lord Eldon; George Canning, etc., May et seq. 1804
18 June, 1859 (Mr. Pitt died 23 Jan. 1806.)
(Lord Palmerston died 18 Oct. 1865.) "Aů the Talents'' _lord Grenville; lord Henry Petty; Earl Russell ; W. E. Gladstone; carl of Clarendon; etc. lord Erskine; C. J. Fox; sir Charles Grey (afterwards
Oct. 1865 earl Grey)
..... Feb. 1806 Resigned, in consequence of a minority on the Re[Mr. Fox's death, 13 Sept. 1806, led to numerous
form bill, 19 June..
26 June, 1866 changes)
Earl of Derby; Benjamin Disraeli ; lord Stanley, etc. Duke of Portland ; lord Eldon, etc. *.
. March, 1807 For changes, see Derby Administrations... ..6 July, Spencer Perceval ; earl of Liverpool; viscount Palmer
Earl of Derby resigned through ill-health.... Feb. 25, 1868 ston, etc..
Nov. and Dec. 1809 B. Disraeli reconstituted the administration..... 29 Feb. REGENCY.- Mr. Spencer Perceval (shot by Bellingham,
Mr. Disraeli resigned in consequence of the elections 11 May, 1812), etc....
.5 Feb. 1811 in November giving a majority of about 114 to the Lib. Earl of Lirerpool ; lord Eldon; Mr. Vansittart; lord Mel.
.2 Dec. ville; viscounts Castlereagh, Palmerston, etc.. Jay, June, 1812 | W. E. Gladstone ; earl of Clarendon; Robert Lowe; John GEORGE IV.- Earl of Liverpool, etc... 29 Jan. 1820 Bright, and others, received seals..
.9 Dec. (During lord Liverpool's long administration numer
Lost their majority by the general election, Feb.; ous changes occurred.)
17 Feb, 1874 George Canning i lord Lyndhurst; viscount Goderich; B. Disraeli (earl of Beaconsfield, 16 Aug. 1876); the earl
William Huskisson ; viscount Palmerston; duke of of Derby; the marquess of Salisbury, and others, re-
... April, 1827
21 Feb. [Mr. Canning died 8 Aug. 1827.]
(For changes, see Disraeli Administrations.) Viscount Godterich; viscount Palmerston; marquess of
Lost their majority by elections in April; resigned Lansdowne; W. Huskisson, etc., Aug.
22 April, 1880 Duke of Wellington, Robert Peel; Mr. Huskisson; etc. W. E. Gladstone ; earl Granville; marquess of Harting
Jan. 1828 ton; duke of Argyll; sir Wm. Harcourt; John Bright, The ministry reconstructed on the retirement of the and others, received seals.
.28 April, carl of Dudley, lord Palmerston, Mr. Grant, Mr. Hus
[For changes, see separate articles under the prekisson...
. May and June, 1828 mier's name.) William IV. ---Duke of Wellington, etc... .. 26 June, 1830 Earl Grey; marquess of Lansdowne; lord Brougham; vis
Administrations OF THE UNITED STATES. The count Althorp; earl of Durham; viscounts Melbourne, following is a list of the presidents of the United States Palmerston, and Goderich ; sir James Graham ; lord and their respective cabinet officers, from the commenceJohn Russell, etc...
Nov. Earl Grey resigns, owing to a majority against him
ment of the federal government to 1881:
FIRST ADMINISTRATION-1789 TO 1797. * The duel between lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning, 22 President: George Washington, of Va. Sept. 1809, led to the breaking up of this administration. Vice-president: John Adams, of Mass.
Secretaries of State: Thomas Jefferson, of Pa., 26 Sept. 1789;
SEVEXTI ADMINISTRATION-1829 TO 1837. Edmund Randolph, of Va., 2 Jan. 1794; Timothy Picker- President: Andrew Jackson, of Tenn. ing, of Mass., 10 Dec. 1795.
Vice-presidents: John C. Calhoun, of S. C. - resigned 28 Dec. Secretaries of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton, of N. Y., 11
1832; Martin Van Buren, of N. Y., 4 March, 1833. Sept. 1789; Oliver Wolcott, of Conn., 3 Feb. 1795.
Secretaries of State: Martin Van Buren, of N. Y., 6 March, Secretaries of War: Henry Knox, of Mass., 12 Sept. 1789; Tim. 1829; Edward Livingston, of La., 24 May, '1831; Louis othy Pickering, of Mass., 2 Jan. 1795; James McHenry, of McLane, of Del., 29 March, 1833; John Forsyth, of Ga., 27 Md., 27 Jan. 1796.
June, 1834. Secretaries of the Navy. No navy department was organized Secretaries of the Treasury: Samuel D. Ingham, of Pa., 6 during Washington's administration.
March, 1829; Louis Mclanc, of Del., 8 Aug. 1831; William Postmasters.general: Samuel Osgood, of Mass., 26 Sept. 1789; J. Duane, of Pa., 29 May, 1833; Roger B. Taney, of Md., 23
Timothy Pickering, of Mass., 7 Noy. 1794; Joseph Haber. Sept. 1833—not confirmed by the senate; Levi Woodbury, sham, of Ga., 25 Feb. 1795.
of N. H., 27 June, 1834. Attorneys - general: Edmund Randolph, of Va., 26 Sept. 1789; Secretaries of War: John H. Eaton, of Tenn., 9 March, 1829;
William Bradford, of Pa., 27 Jan. 1794; Charles Lee, of Va., Lewis Cass, of Mich., 1 Aug 1831-resigned Nov. 1836.
Secretaries of the Navy: John Branch, of N. C., 9 March, 1829;
Levi Woodbury, of N. H., 23 May, 1831; Mahlon Dickerson,
of N. J., 30 June, 1834. President: John Adams, of Mass.
Postmasters.general: William T. Barry, of Ky.. 9 March, 1829.
Previous to this date the postmaster-general had not been
recognized as a member of the president's cabinet. Amos John Marshall, of Va., 13 May, 1800. Secretaries of the Treasury: Oliver Wolcott, continued in of Attorneys general: John McPherson Berrien, of Ga., 9 March,
Kendall, of Ky., 1 May, 1835. fice; Samuel Dexter, of Mass., 31 Dec. 1800. Secretaries of War: James McHenry, continued in office; Sam.
1829; Roger B. Taney, of Md., 27 Dec. 1831; Benjamin F. uel Dexter, of Jass., 13 dlay, 1800; Roger Griswold, of Conn.,
Butler, of N. Y., 24 June, 1834. 3 Feb. 1801.
EIGHTH ADMINISTRATION-1837 TO 1841. Secretaries of the Navy: George Cabot, of Mass., 3 May, 1798, President: Martin Van Buren, of N. Y. declined; Benjamin Stoddert, of Md., 21 May, 1798.
Vice-president: Richard M. Johnson, of Ky. Postmaster general: Joseph Habersham, continued in othce.
Secretary of State: John Forsyth, continued in office.
Secretary of the Treasury: Levi Woodbury, continued in of-
fice. President: Thomas Jefferson, of la.
Secretary of War: Joel R. Poinsett, of S. C., 7 March, 1837.
Secretaries of the Navy: Mahlon Dickerson, continued in of Vice-presidents: Aaron Burr, of N. Y., from 1801 to 1805;
fice; James K. Paulding, of N. Y., 20 June, 1838. George Clinton, of N. Y., from 4 March, 1805.
Postmasters general: Amos Kendall, continued in office; John Secretary of State: James Madison, of Va., 5 March, 1801.
M. Niles, of Conn., 18 May, 1840. Secretaries of the Treasury: Samuel Dexter, continued in office; Albert Gallatin, of Pa., 26 Jan. 1802.
Attorneys general: Benjamin F. Butler, continued in office; Secretary of War: Henry Dearborn, of Mass., 5 March, 1801.
Felix Grundy, of Tenn., 7 July, 1838Henry D. Gilpin, of
Pa., 10 Jan. 1840. Secretaries of the Nary: Benjamin Stoddert, continued in oftice; Robert Smith, of Md., 26 Jan. 1802; Jacob Crownin.
NINTH ADMINISTRATION-1841 to 1845. shield, of Mass., 2 March, 1805.
President: William Henry Harrison, of 0. Died 4 April, 1841,
Vice president: John Tyler, of la.
ert Smith, of Md., 3 March, 1805; John Breckinridge, of -resigned 8 May, 1843; Hugh S. Legaró, of S. C., 9 May,
1843—killed by the bursting of a cannon, 28 Feb. 1844; John FOURTH ADMINISTRATION-1809 TO 1817.
Nelson, of Md. (acting secretary), 29 Feb. 1844; Jobu C. CalPresident: James Madison, of Va.
houn, of S. C., 6 March, 1844. Vice-presidents: George Clinton, of N. Y., died 20 April, 1812; Secretaries of the Treasury: Thomas Ewing, of 0., 5 March, Elbridge Gerry, of Mass., 4 March, 1813-died 23 Nov. 1813.
1841 - resigned 11 Sept. 1841; Walter Forward, of Pa, 13 Secretaries of State: Robert Smith, of Md., 6 March, 1809; Sept. 1841-resigned 1 March, 1813; Caleb Cushing, of Mass., James Monroe, of Va., 2 April, 1811.
rejected by the senate; Johu C. Spencer, of N. Y., 3 March, Secretaries of the Treasury: Albert Gallatin, continued in of
1843; George M. Bibb, of Ky., 15 June, 1814. tice; George W. Canıpbell, of Tenn., 9 Feb. 1814; Alexander Secretaries of War: John Bell, of Tenn., 5 March, 1841-reJ. Dallas, of Pa., 6 Oct. 1814.
signed 11 Sept. 1841; Jolin McLean, of O., 13 Sept. 1841, deSecretaries of War: William Eustis, of Mass., 7 March, 1809; clined; John C. Spencer, of N. Y., 12 Oct. 1841; James M.
John Armstrong, of N. Y., 13 Jan. 1813; James Monroe, of Porter, of Pa., 8 March, 1813, rejected by the senate; William
Secretaries of the Navy: George E. Badger, of N. C., 5 March,
1841--resigned 11 Sept. 1841; Abel P. Upshur, of Va., 13 1809; William Jones, of Pa., 12 Jan. 1813; Benjamin W. Sept. 1841; David Henshaw, of Mass., 24 July, 1843, rejected Crowninshield, of Mass., 17 Dec. 1814.
by the senate; Thomas W. Gilmer, of Va., 15 Feb. 1844– Postmasters-general: Gideon Granger, continued in office; died 28 Feb. 1844; John Y. Mason, of l'a, 14 March, 1844. Return J. Meigs, of 0., 17 March, 1814.
Postmasters-general: Francis Granger, of N. Y., 6 March, 1841
William Pinckney, of Md., 11 Dec. 1811; Richard Rush, of Sept. 1841.
Attorneys-general: John J. Crittenden, of Ky., 5 March, 1841—
resigned 11 Sept. 1841; Hugh $. Legare, of S. C., 13 Sept. President: James Monroe, of Va.
1841; John Nelson, of Md., 1 July, 1813. Vice-president: Daniel D. Tompkins, of N. Y.
TENTI ADMINISTRATION-1845 TO 1849.
Vice-pres dent: George M. Dallas, of Pa.
Secretary of the Treasury: Robert J. Walker, of Miss., 5
March, 1845. clined the appointment; Georgo Graham, of Va., 7 April, Secretary of War: William L. Marcy, of N. Y.. 5 March, 1845. 1817; John C. Calhoun, of S. C..8 Oct. 1817.
Secretaries of the Navy: George Bancroft, of Mass., 10 March, Secretaries of the Navy: Benjamin W. Crowninshield, contin. ued in office; Smith Thompson, of N. Y., 9 Nov. 1818; John Postmaster-general: Care Jolinson, of 'Tenn., 5 March, 1845.
1845; John Y. Mason, of Va., 9 Sept. 1816. Rogers, of Mass., 1 Sept. 1823; Samuel L. Southard, of N. J., Attorneys general: John Y. Mason, of l'a., 5 March, 1845; Na16 Sept. 1823.
than Cliford, of Me., 17 Oct. 1846; Isaac Toucey, of Coun., Postmasters general: Return J. Meigs, continued in office; John Mclea), of (., 26 June, 1823.
21 June, 1848. Attorneys-general: Richard Rush, continued in office; Will.
ELEVENTH ADMINISTRATION-1849 TO 1853. iam Wirt, of l'a., 13 Nov. 1817.
President: Zachary Taylor, of La. Died 9 July, 1850, and was
succeeded by the vice-president. SIXTH ADMINISTRATION-1825 To 1829.
Vice-president: Millard Fillmore, of N. Y. President: John Quincy Adams, of Mass.
Secretaries of State: John M. Clayton, of Del, 7 March, 1819Vice-president: John C. Calhom, of S. C.
resigned 10 July, 1850; Daniel Webster, of diass., 20 July, Secretary of Sute: Henry Clay, of Ky., 7 March. 1825.
1850—died 24 Oct. 1852; Edward Everett, of Mass., 9 Dec. Secretary of the Treasury: Richard Rush, of Pa., March, 1852. 1825.
Secretaries of the Treasury: William M. Meredith, of Pa., 7 Secretaries of War: James Parbour, of Va., 7 March, 1825; Pe- March, 1849--resigned 10 July, 1850; Thomas Corwin, of 0., ter B. Porter, of N. Y., 26 May, 1828.
20 July, 1850 Secretary of the Navy: Samuel L. Southard, continued in of Secretaries of War: George W. Crawford, of Ga., 7 March, 1849 tice.
-- resigned 10 July, 1850; William A. Graham, of N. C., 20 Postmaster general: John McLean, continued in office.
July, 1850 — resigned 15 July, 1852; John P. Kennedy, of Attorney general: William Wirt, continued in office.
Md., 22 July, 1852.
Secretaries of the Interior (a new office): Thomas Ewing, of Secretary of the Treasury: John Sherman, of 0., 8 March,
0., 7 March, 1849-resigned 10 July, 1850; James A. Pearce, 1877. of Md., 20 July, 1850; T. McKeunon, of Pa., 15 Aug. 1850, Secretaries of War: George W. McCrary, of Ia., 12 March, 1877; and died soon afterwards; Alexander H. H. Stuart, of Va., Alexander Ramsey, of Minn., 10 Dec. 1879. 12 Sept. 1850.
Secret:ries of the Navy: Richard W. Thompson, of Ind. , 12 Postmasters general: Jacob Collamer, of Vt., 7 March, 1849— March, 1877; Nathan Goff, Jr., of W. Va., 6 Jan. 1881. resigned 10 July, 1850; N. K. Hall, of N. Y., 20 July, 1850— Secretary of the Interior: Carl Schurz, of Mo., 12 March, 1877. resigned Aug. 1852; Samuel D. Hubbard, of Conn., 31 Aug. Postmasters-general: David M. Key, of Tenn., 12 March, 1877; 1852.
Horace Maynard, of Tenn., 2 June, 1880. Attorneys general: Reverdy Johnson, of Md., 7 March, 1849— Attorney-general: Charles Devens, of Mass., 12 March, 1877. res gued 10 July, 1830; John J. Crittenden, of Ky., 20 July,
SEVENTEENTH ADMINISTRATION--1881. 1850.
President: James A. Garfield, of 0.-died 19 Sept. 1891, when TWELFTH ADMINISTRATION-1853 to 1857.
vice-president Chester A. Arthur, of N. Y., becaine pres dent. President: Frauklin Pierce, of N. H.
Vice-president: Chester A. Arthur, of N. Y., succeeded to the Vice-president. William R. King, of Ala. Died 18 April, 1853. presidency 19 Sept. 1881. Secretary of State: William L. Marcy, of N. Y., 5 March, 1853. Secretaries of State: James G. Blaine, of Me., 5 March, 1881; Secretary of the Treasury: James Guthrie, of Ky., 5 March, F. T. Frelinghuysen, of N. J., 12 Dec. 1881. 1853.
Secretaries of the Treasury: William Windom, of Minn., 5 Secretary of War: Jefferson Davis, of Miss., 5 March, 1853.
March, 1891; Charles J. Folger, of N. Y., 27 Oct. 1881. Secretary of the Navy: James C. Dobbin, of N. C., 5 March, Secretary of War: Robert T. Lincoln, of III., 5 March, 1881. 1853.
Secretary of the Navy: William H. Hunt, of La., 5 March, Secretary of the Interior: Robert McClellan, of Mich., 5 March, 1881. 1853.
Secretary of the Interior: Samuel J. Kirkwood, of Ia., 5 Postmaster-general: James Campbell, of Pa., 5 March, 1853. March, 1831. Attorney-general: Caleb Cushing, of Mass., 5 March, 1853. Postmasters-general: Thomas L. James, of N. Y., 5 March, THIRTEENTII ADMINISTRATION-1857 to 1861.
1881; Timothy 0. Howe, of Wis., 20 Dec. 1881.
Attorneys.general: Wayne McVeagh, of Pa., 5 March, 1881; President: James Buchanan, of Pa.
Benjamin Harris Brewster, of Pa., 10 Dec. 1881. Vice-president: John C. Breckinridge, of Ky. Secretaries of State: Lewis Cass, ot Mich., 6 March, 1857-re. Administrative Reform Association de
sigued 14 Dec. 1860. Jeremiah S. Black, of Pa., succeeded rived its origin from an opinion that the disasters which
him. Secretaries of the Treasury: Howell Cobb, of Ga., 6 March, occurred to the army in the Crimea in 1851-5 were
1857-resigned 10 Dec. 1500; Philip F. Thomas, of Md. -re- attributable to the inefficient and irresponsible managesigned 11 Jan. 1861; John A. Dix, of N. Y.
ment of the various departments of the state.
The assoSecretaries of War: John B. Floyd, of Va., 6 March, 1857-reciation was organized in London, 5 May, 1855. A meet
signed 29 Dec. 1800; Joseph Holt, of Ky., 30 Dec. 1860. Secretary of the Navy: Isanc Toucey, of Conn. 6 March, 1857. ing was held in Drury-lane theatre on 13 June, and Mr. Secretary of the Interior: Jacob Thompson, of Miss., 6 March, Layaril's motion on the subject in parliament was nega
1857-resigned 8 Jan. 1861. Postmasters - general: Aaron V. Brown, of Tenn., 6 March, lived 18 June following. The association was reorgan
1857—died 8 March, 1859; Joseph Holt, of Ky., July, 1859; ized in 1856, Mr. Roebuck, M.P., becoming chairman, but Horatio King, of Me., 12 Feb. 1861.
soon became unimportant; see Civil Service. Attorneys general: Jeremiah S. Black, of Pa., 6 March, 1857; Edwin H. Stanton, of 0., Dec. 1860.
Admiral. The title does not appear to have been
adopted in England until about 1300, but was previously FOURTEENTII ADMINISTRATION-1861 to 1869. Presidents: Abraham Lincoln, of 111. —-died 15 April, 1835. An. in use in France.—Sir Ilarris Nicolus. Alfred, Athelstari,
drew Johnson, of Tenn., succeeded Abraham Lincoln, 15 Edgar, Harold, and other kings were commanders of April, 1865.
their own fleets. The first French admiral is said to Vice presidents: Hannibal Hamlin, of Me.; Andrew Johnson, have been appointed 1284. The rank of admiral of the
of Tenn., 4 March, 1855-died 31 July, 1875. Secretary of State: William H. Seward, of N. Y., March, 1861. English seas was first given to William de Leybourne by Secretaries of the Treasury: Salmon P. Chase, of 0., March, Edward I. in 1297.— Spelmun ; Rymer. The tirst LORD
1861; William P. Fessenden, of Me., Sept. 1864; Hugh High Admiral in England was created by Richard II.
McCulloch, of Ind., March, 1865. So:returies of War: Simon Cameron, of Pa., March, 1861; Ed. in 1385; there had been previously high admirals of win M. Stanton, of 0., Jan. 1862.
districts--the north, west, and south. The duties have Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles, of Conn., March, 1861. generally been executed by lords commissioners; see Secretaries of the Interior: Caleb B. Smith, of Ind., March,
1861-resigned Dec. 1862: John P. Usher, of Ind., Jan. 1863; Admiralty. A similar dignity existed in Scotland from James Harlan, of la., May, 1865; 0. H. Browning, of Ill., the reign of Robert III. In 1673, Charles II. bestowed July, 1866.
it upon his natural son Charles Lennox, afterwards duke Postmasters general: Montgomery Blair, of Md., March, 1861; of Richmond, then an infant, who resigned the office to William Deunison, of 0., Oct. 1864; Alexander W. Randall, the crown in 1703 : after the union it was discontinued.
of Wis., July, 1866, Attorneys general: Edward Bates of Mo., March, 1861; James - The dignity of lord high admiral of Ireland (of brief Speed, of Ky., Dec. 1861; H. F. Stansberry, of Ky., July, existence) was conferred upon James Butler by Henry 1866. FIFTEENTII ADMINISTRATION-1869 TO 1877.
VIII. in May, 1534. The Admiral of the Fleet is the President: Ulysses S. Grant, of Ill.
highest rank in the Royal navy, corresponding to that Vice presidents: Schuyler Colfax, of Ind. ; Henry Wilson, of of tield-marshal in the army. We have now 5 ailmirals
Mass., 4 March, 1873.
of the fleet, 16 admirals, 19 vice-admirals, 31 rear-admi1869; Hamilton Fish, of N. Y., 11 March, 1869. Secretaries of the Treasury: Georgo S. Boutwell
, of Mass., 11 in the United States navy was created July 25, 1866, for March, 1869; Willam a Richardson, of Mass., 17 March, the purpose of honoring David G. Farragut and suitably 1873; Benjamin H. Bristow, or Ky., 2 June, 1874; Lot M. rewarding him for his eminent services.
Morrill, of Me, 21 June, 1876.
William T. Sherman, of 0., 9 Sept. 1869; William W. Bel. causes relating to maritime affairs, said to have been
knap, of la, 25 Oct. 1869. Secretaries of the Navy: Adolph E. Borie, of Pa., 5 March, erected by Edward III. in 1357. It was enacted in the 1869; George M. Robeson, of N. J., 25 June, 1869.
reign of Henry VIII, that criminal causes should be Secretaries of the Interior: Jacob D. Cox. of 0., 5 March, 1869, tried by witnesses and a jury, some of the judges at
Columbus Delano, of 0., 1 Nov. 1870; Zachariah Chandler, Westminster (or, as now, at the Old Bailey) assisting.
of Mich., 19 Oct. 1875.
1869; James W. Marshall, of Pa, 3 July, 1871; Marshall and was filled by two or more functionaries until the
Amos T. Akerman, of Ga., 23 Juno, 1870; George H. Will? civil law. In 1814 the criminal jurisdiction of this court
was removed, and by 20 & 21 Vict, c. 77 (1857), the
judge of the Probate court was to be also judge of the SIXTEENTHI ADMINISTRATION--1877 To 1881.
Admiralty court. The judge of the Admiralty court, President: Rutherford B. Hayes, of 0. Vice President: William A. Wheeler, of N. Y.
Dr. Stephen Lushington (appointed in 1838), resigned i Secretary of State: William M. Evarts, of N. Y., 12 March, July, 1867, and was succeeded by Sir Robert Phillimore. 1877.
The jurisdiction of this court was extended in 1861; see
FIRST LORDS OF THE ADMIRALTY.
Supreme Court. In the United States admiralty juris- | 1828. Robert, viscount Melville, 19 Sept. diction is exercised by the circuit and district courts.
1830. Sir James Robert George Graham, bart., 25 Nov.
1834. George, lord Auckland, 11 June. Admiralty, Whitehall. “At the south end of Thomas Philip, earl de Grey, 23 Dec. Duke street, Westminster, was seated a large house
1835. George, lord Auckland, 25 April.
Gilbert, earl of Minto, 19 Sept. made use of for the adıniralty office, until the business 1841. Thomas, earl of Haddington, 8 Sept. was removed to Greenwich, and thence to Wallingford 1846. Edward, earl of Ellenborough, 13 Jan. house, against Whitehall.” It was rebuilt by Ripley 1849. Sir Francis Thornhill Baring. 18 Jan.
George, earl of Auckland, 24 July. about 17:26; the screen was erected, to conceal the ugli- 1852. Algernon, duke of Northumberland, 28 Feb. ness of the building, by the brothers Adam, in 1776.- 1853. Sir James Robert George Graham, 5 Jan. Lord Nelson lay in state in one of the apartments on 8 1855. Sir Charles Wood, bart., 24 Feb.
1858. Sir John Pakington, bart, , 26 Feb. Jan. 1806, and on the next day was buried at St. Paul's.
1859. Edward, duke of Somerset, June. Admiralty and War-office Act, to facilitate 1866. Sir Jolin Pakington, bart., 6 July. improvements in the organization of these offices, by the 1868. Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, 9 Dec.
1867. Henry Lowry Corry, 8 March. retirement of clerks from certain of the civil depart- 1871. George Joachim Göschen, 9 March. ments by granting gratuities, was passed 10 Aug. 1878. 1874. George Ward Hunt, 21 Feb. ; died 29 July, 1877.
1877. William Henry Smith, about 7 Aug. Admiralty Office dates from 1512, when Henry 1880. Thomas George Baring, earl of Northbrook, 23 April. VIII. appointed commissioners to inspect his ships of “ Admonition to THE PARLIAMENT,” condemning
During the Commonwealth the admiralty affairs all religious ceremonies but those commanded by the were managed by a committee of the parliament; and New Testament, was published by certain Puritans in at the restoration in 1660, James, duke of York, became 1571. Its presumed authors, Field and Wilcox, were imlord high admiral. In 1662 the admiralty was first put prisoned. A second Admonition, by Thomas Cartwright, into commission, the great officers of state being the
was answered by archbishop Whitgift. commissioners; see succeeding changes below. In 1688–9 the admiralty was put into commission, and the board doges were frequently members
, disturbed Genoa from
Adorno and Fregoso, two families, of which the appears to have assembled at admiral Herbert's lodg- the fourteenth to the sixteenth century; the former ings, in Channel row, Westminster, he being at that time first lord. In 1830, 1832, and 1836 various changes
favoring the emperor, the latter the French king. Their were made in the civil departments, several offices being power was annihilated by Andrea Doria about 1528. abolished or consolidated with others. In March, 1861, Adrian's (or Hadrian's) Wall (to prevent the a royal commission recommended the abolition of the irruptions of the Scots and Picts into the northern board of admiralty and the appointment of a minister of counties of England, then under the Roman governthe navy department. The board was reconstituted 14 ment) extended from the Tyne to Solway frith, and was Jan. 1869, and 4 May, 1872.
eighty miles long, twelve feet high, and eight feet in
thickness, with watch-towers; built 121. It was re1660. JAMES, DUKE OF York, lord high admiral, 6 June.
paired and strengthened by Severus, 207–210. 1673. King CHARLES II., 14 June.
Adrianople, in Turkey, so named after its restorer, PRINCE RUPERT, 9 July,
the emperor Adrian, or Hadrian (who died 10 July, 138). 1679. Sir Henry Capel, 14 Feb. 1680. Daniel Finch, esq., 19 Feb.
Near here Constantine defeated Licinius and gained the 1681. Daniel, lord Finch, 20 Jan.
empire, 3 July, 323 ; also, near here the emperor Valens 1683. Daniel, earl of Nottingham, 17 April.
was defeated and slain by the Goths, 9 Aug. 378. Adri1684. KING CHARLES II. 1685. KING JAMES II., 17 May. Office in commission.
anople was taken by the Turks, under Amurath, in 1361, 1689. Arthur Herbert, esq., 8 March.
and was their capital till the capture of Constantinople 1690. Thomas, carl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 20 Jan. in 1453. It was taken by the Russians on 20 Aug. 1692. Charles, lord Cornwallis, 10 March
1829; and restored 14 Sept. same year; occupied by the 1693. Anthony, viscount Falkland, 15 April 1694. Edward Russel, esq. (afterwards earl of Orford), 2 May.
Russians, without resistance, 20 Jan. 1878; see Turkey. 1699. John, earl of Bridgewater, 2 June.
Adriatic. 1701. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, 4 April.
The ceremony of the doge of Venice 1702. GEORGE, PRINCE OF DENMARK, lord high admiral, 20 May. wedding the Adriatic sea (instituted about 1173) took 1708. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, ditto, 29 Nov. Office in com place annually on Ascension-day. The doge dropped a mission.
ring into the sea from his Bucentaur, or state barge, being 1709. Edward, earl of Orford, 8 Oct. 1710. Sir John Leake, 4 Oct.
attended by his nobility and foreign ambassadors. The 1712. Thomas, carl of Strafford, 30 Sept.
ceremony was first omitted in 1797. 1714. Edward, earl of Orford, 14 Oct. 1717. James, earl of Berkeley, 19 March.
Adullam, a cave to which David fled from the per17:27. George, viscount Torrington, 2 Aug.
secution of Saul about 1062 B.C. (1 Sam. xxii, 1, 2). 1733. Sir Charles Wager, knt., 25 June. 1742. Daniel, earl of Winchilsca, 19 March.
Mr. Horsman, Mr. R. Lowc, earl Grosvenor, lord Elcho, and 1744. Johin, duke of Bedford, 27 Dec.
other liberals who opposed the Franchise bill in 1866 were 1748. John, earl of Sandwich, 10 Feb.
termed " Adullamites.” During a debate on this bill on 13 1751. George, lord Anson, 22 June
March, 1866, Mr. Bright said of Mr. Horsman that he "had 1756. Richard, carl Temple, 19 Nov.
retired into what may be called his political cave of Adul. 1757. Daniel, earl of Winchilsea, 6 April.
lam, to which he invited every one who was in debt, and George, lord Anson, 2 July.
every one who was discontented,' etc. On 19 April, lord 1762. George M. Dunk, earl of Halifax, 19 Juno.
Elcho said, “No improper motive has driven us into this 1763. George Grenville, esq., 1 Jan.
cave, where we are a most happy family, daily-I may say, Jolin, carl of Sandwich, 23 April.
hourly-increasing in number and strength, where we shall Jobin, earl of Egmont, 10 Sept.
remain until we go forth to deliver Israel from oppression." 1766. Sir Charles Saunders, 10 Sept.
Although their opposition led to the defeat and resignation Sir Edward Hawke, 10 Dec.
of the Russell ministry, they declined to take office under 1771. John, earl of Sandwich, 12 Jan.
lord Derby in July, 1866. They did not vote together imi. 1782. Hon. Augustus Keppel, 1 April.
formly in 1867, and (lord Elcho and Mr. Wyld excepted) Augustus, viscount Keppel, 18 July.
voted with Mr. Gladstone for the disestablishment of the 1783, Richard, viscount Howe, 28 Jan.
Irish church, 1 May, 1868. 1788. John, earl of Chatham, 16 July.
Adulteration. That of food was prohibited in 1794. George John, carl Spencer, 20 Dec. 1801. John, earl St. Vincent, 19 Feb.
England in 1267, and punishments for it enacted, 1581, 1804. Henry, viscount Melville, 15 May.
1604, 1836, 1851, etc. Much attention was drawn to it 1805. Charles, lord Barham, 2 May.
in 1822, through Mr. Accum's book, called “Death in the 1806. Hon. Charles Gray, 10 Feb. Thomas Grenville, esq., 23 Oct.
Pot," and in 1855 through Dr. Hlassall's book, " Food and 1807. Henry, lord Mulgrave, 6 April.
its Adulterations.” By an act for preventing the adul1809. Charles Yorke, esq., 10 May.
teration of food, passed in 1860, parochial chemical ana1812. Robert, viscount Melville, 25 March. 1827. WILLJAM HENRY, DUKE OF Clarence, lord high admiral, lysts may be appointed. An act to prevent adulteration 2 May; resigned 12 Aug. 1828.
of seeds passed 16 Aug. 1869, amended 1878. Another