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from each other, in the interior of the town; and the month General Bourbaki, the able commander the fourth closing the road from La Fère to the of the imperial guard, and right hand of Bazaine, top of the Faubourg d'Isle. Ten men could defend as we shall see in the next chapter, found his this barricade for a brief space. At the entrance way out of Metz and through the Prussian lines, in of the town, close to the Grand Canal barricade, connection with a mysterious intrigue, the exact which formed, indeed, a very strong position, the nature and object of which did not at the time tranfight began, and while it lasted the prefect remained spire. Suffice it here to relate that he came over in the first post of danger. The Prussians, num- to England, to visit the empress at Chiselhurst, bering about 750, intrenched themselves in the who, as it turned out, had not expected him, and railway station. Taking advantage of the angles had nothing to say to him. He recrossed into of the houses, and of the openings in the railway France, hoping that the Prussian staff would allow balustrades, they endeavoured to deploy as sharp- him to rejoin Bazaine; but as they threw obstacles shooters, but failed to reach the national guard, in his way, he repaired to Tours, and placed his and suffered rather serious losses, every man who sword at the disposal of the Provisional Governshowed himself being shot. The struggle lasted ment, by which he was at once appointed to the from half-past ten until about two o'clock, when command of the

command of the army of the north. the Prussians retreated, taking the road to Marle. This general is of Greek origin, and his father, On October 21 they returned, at least 5000 strong, a staunch imperialist, rendered important services and with twelve field-guns they for half-an-hour to Napoleon I. It was he who, in the Egyptian cannonaded the town. No resistance being offered, campaign of 1798-99, went over from France in a they entered, and demanded 2,000,000 francs, felucca, and aided by his nationality, succeeded in 1,500,000 of which (£60,000) was paid—an duping the English cruisers and entering Egypt. exaction which, the Germans said, would have He brought Napoleon such news as decided him been very

much less had not the town defended on returning immediately to Paris, to which ciritself on the first occasion.

cumstance he owed his throne.

Seventeen years Clermont was captured, after a brief resistance, later the same faithful adherent was sent to inform in the end of September. Beauvais, Breteuil, Bonaparte of the decision of the Allies, that he Montdidier, Vernon, Gisors, and Gournay were should be transferred to St. Helena. also occupied, and from these points the Prussians General Bourbaki especially distinguished himscoured the country for provisions for the army self by his cool and determined courage in that around Paris. Here and there the national guard training-ground of all modern French generalsshowed in force; but in these cases a requisition Algeria. In the Crimean war he served as general was made that all arms should be given up, under of brigade, and his gallantry at the Alma, Inkerpenalty of death, and the result generally was that, man, the Malakoff, and the taking of Sebastopol, a few hours afterwards, waggon-loads of muskets is too well known to be dwelt upon here. poured into the German camp. In Rouen, Amiens, General of division in 1857, he took no mean part and the larger towns, the inhabitants were kept in in the Italian war, and in 1870 was nominated a feverish state of excitement by the frequent raids commander of the second camp at Châlons. At made in the places around. The national guards the beginning of the war he was appointed to were called out, equipped, and drilled, and through the command of the imperial guard, joined Marshal out all the northern departments very large enrol- Bazaine, and was forced with him into Metz, where ments of garde mobile took place, who displayed he remained until his extraordinary release. He a better spirit than was shown in many parts of the was one of the French generals who received a country; but it needed a responsible master-hand decoration from the king of Prussia in 1864. No to introduce organization and discipline amongst name was better calculated to restore confidence them. Considerable spirit was shown by the and inspire energy into the newly-enrolled troops irregular troops of the northern departments, who throughout the North, to whom, on his appointon every opportunity harassed the Germans, and ment, he issued the following proclamation :caused them the loss of a gun—the first sacrificed by them in the campaign-in an attempt to cut the railroad between Amiens and Rouen. Early in Citizens, national guards, soldiers, and mobile


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guards,—I have been called by the minister of War organization of which he was well fitted by his to the military command of the region of the North. influence and experience.

influence and experience. General Fiereck was The task which devolves on me is a great one, and appointed over the western regular army. I should think it above my strength were I not Besides the several field armies organizing in sustained by the feelings of patriotism which ani- the provinces in October, a corps of volunteer mate you. All my endeavours tend to the creation, engineers was formed, to operate upon the German as speedily as possible, of an active army corps, lines of communication. These companies—known which, provided with a war matériel, can take the as “ The Wild Boars of the Ardennes," “ The field and proceed to the assistance of the fortresses, Railway Destroyers,” &c. — were composed of which I hasten to place in a good state of defence. artisans of all classes, and carried picks, crowbars, As to me, who have loyally offered my sword to mining tools, hatchets, powder petards and cases, the government of the national defence, my endea- for pulling up rails, blowing up bridges, felling trees, vours and my life belong to the common work and mining roads. Two companies were specially which it prosecutes together with yourselves, and designed to guard them when at work, and one to in the moment of danger you will see me at the collect provisions and attend generally to the comhead of the troops who will soon be organized. To missariat. In at least one instance the operations fulfil this difficult task, and to make our implacable of this corps were eminently successful, and several enemy pay dear for each step on our territory, railway accidents were caused to the German concord and confidence must reign among us, and trains. To stop these proceedings, however, the our hearts must be animated with only one wish

Prussians issued an order that the trains should —to save and avenge our unhappy France. You “ be accompanied by inhabitants who are well may rely upon the most energetic co-operation and known and generally respected, and who shall the most absolute devotedness on my part, just as be placed on the locomotive, so that it may be I rely upon your courage and patriotism.

made known that every accident caused by the (Signed)

hostility of the inhabitants will, in the first place, “ BOURBAKI.

injure their countrymen.” At Nancy the first "LILLE, October 29, 1870."

hostage was M. Leclair, the venerable president

of the Court of Appeal. On another occasion, Brittany and the district west of Paris began in Procureur-général Isard was “invited” to make October to show signs of activity in contributing an involuntary journey. Escorted by two Prustowards the national defence. Early in the month sian gendarmes, he had to mount the tender and the command of the western levies was intrusted travel to Luneville, where his colleague in that by the government to Count de Keratry, a Breton town took his place. The president of the Chamnoble, who forthwith issued a proclamation urging ber of Commerce, a

ber of Commerce, a judge, and a barrister, also his compatriots to emulate the noble example of occupied in turn the post of danger. their brethren of Brittany who at that moment While speaking of the “ railway destroyers,” it manned the ramparts of Paris. The army of the may be remarked that, although the war we are West had not, it is true, assumed large proportions now reviewing gives no actual examples of the as yet; but with good organization it was sufficiently working of the well-known theory of Marmont, numerous to be no mean auxiliary to the army that mounted infantry should play a striking part of the Loire, in any attempt for the relief of the in the warfare of the future, we see at least that eapital. Before Count de Keratry took the com- the German cavalry would have found their move mand of the army of the West it had been a con- ments in the interior of France paralyzed by the tinued source of misfortune to the district, by its hostility of the armed bands which lurked in every ill-disciplined and scattered bands offering resist- covert, had they not fallen upon the device of ance to the German requisition columns, which, attaching to each brigade a detachment of riflemen, while utterly ineffectual, brought down severe to assist in dispersing these secret enemies. The vengeance upon unoffending villages, several of clearing and occupation of the country south of which were ruthlessly destroyed. The count soon Paris was accomplished mainly by the aid of the afterwards assumed the command of the irregular Bavarian riflemen who were employed with the forces of the West, franc-tireurs, &c., for the fourth and sixth cavalry divisions; and when, after

inclosed posts.

the fall of Metz, Manteuffel advanced to occupy daring and energy with himself, it would have the north of France with the first army, his flank fared hard even with the magnificent armies of and front were kept clear by the first division Germany. The first decree of October, for a levée under Göben, who carried similar small parties of en masse of all men between twenty-one and forty riflemen with each of his brigades, and used them years, ought in a month to have been answered by constantly in his occupation of villages and other a number several times larger than any trained

Such infantry, however active, army which Germany could bring into the country; would of necessity have been a heavy clog upon and with very moderate organization, numerical the movements of the horse, had they not been strength so vastly superior should have had a repeatedly hurried forward in country carts or proportionate effect on the fortunes of the war. other wheeled carriages. Indeed, the device was October, however, closed with at least 700,000 simply a rude expedient to meet an emergency for German soldiers on French territory, to oppose which the Germans were not prepared. Had the which there were not 250,000 organized forces events of 1870 been fully foreseen, some such outside Paris and Metz. Twelve fortresses of scheme would doubtless have been fallen upon as France—namely, Strassburg, Toul, Marsal, Vitry, raising bodies of mounted riflemen for the express Sedan, Laon, Lützelstein, Lichtenberg, Weissempurpose of ridding the advanced guards from burg, Soissons, Schlestadt, and Metz—had been lurking franc-tireurs. There is the highest au- captured by the enemy; and Phalsburg, Bitsche, thority—that of the most successful of the generals Paris, Thionville, Mézières, Montmédy, Verdun, who have used this modified form of cavalry on Longwy, and Neu Breisach were besieged. a great scale—for asserting that, had the French One of the earliest and most questionable of early in this war trained up a mass of horsemen Gambetta's decrees was that which abolished the such as those that followed Sheridan during the laws of regular promotion in the army, and opened American civil war, instead of devoting their whole every grade to civił talent. With the most orderly efforts to the collection of masses of raw infantry army, such an experiment would be dangerous in and artillerymen, they might have so threatened the most favourable circumstances; it was especially the line of railroad which fed the German host so in the midst of such confusion. M. Gambetta before Paris as to render a continued investment thought, however, that the only hope of France impossible. Few at least will doubt that such was in the creation of entirely new armies out of a body, acting upon the communications of the the civil population; and while he betrayed no Germans, would have done more to hinder the little distrust of the regulars, he lost no opportunity conquest of the country than tenfold their numbers of praising and encouraging the new levies, upon sent on foot to be fresh food for the enemy's whom he imagined all the hopes of his country powder.

now rested. That the month of October closed with far All provinces within a hundred kilomètres (about brighter prospects for France than it opened, was seventy miles) of the enemy's forces were placed due mainly to the energy and indefatigable activity under martial law, and in each a commission of of M. Gambetta. From the date of his arrival at defence was appointed to concoct plans of defence, Tours he had virtually been the government of to fortify the points most suitable for defensive national defence.

Indeed the various proclama- purposes, and to direct the local forces. It was tions and decrees issued rarely bore even the further decreed that camps should be formed at a signatures of his colleagues, MM. Cremieux, distance of not less than two miles from each town Glais-Bizoin, and Fourichon. That some of these where the troops of all arms mustered over 2000, decrees were in spirit extremely revolutionary and that officers and men alike, taking up their there is no doubt; but it is equally certain that abode there, should not return to town without a under the exceptional circumstances of the country special permission. In these camps they were to they offered the best remedies for its misfortunes. undergo severe drill, and other discipline, to fit They did not result in the salvation of France, them in every way for service. Another decree because in the hour of need no great military enjoined on the prefects of invaded or threatened genius arose to enforce them. Could the minister provinces to see that the country was laid waste, have relied upon a colleague in the field of equal and all carts, horses, cattle, and sheep removed to


a distance. Soldiers quitting their posts, or flying Lyons is a disgrace to France and a laughing-
before the enemy, were to be brought before a stock to Europe. Out with you at once!”
court-martial, and shot. Any commanding officer To meet immediate claims, and supply articles
whose troops should be surprised by the enemy, necessary for the purposes of the war, the Tours
or who should have advanced upon a position government, on the 26th of October, contracted a
“ without suspecting the hostile presence," was loan of £10,000,000. The result of the subscrip-
also to be brought before a court-martial. The tion to it proved that if France was doomed to
authorities of every town were to defend the place, succumb in the war it would not be for want of
or to show sufficient reason for not doing so. means to fight, nor of the spirit to use them.

Another edict was issued for the purpose of estab. In her then critical situation, with the capital
lishing proper systems of information. Hitherto invested, and over a score of rich departments
the authorities had literally been acting in absolute terror-struck by Prussian legions, it was thought
ignorance of the movements and intentions of the that a loan of this extent must be a failure. For
enemy, while the Prussians, by their widely-spread the first time, therefore, a French loan was opened
system of espionage and their innumerable cavalry in a foreign country-England. Subscriptions
scouts, kept themselves perfectly informed of the were, nevertheless, invited in France, and in less
position and intentions of the French. The govern- than three days the result was an amount equal,
ment now ordered every maire to employ through- in round numbers, to £3,750,000. When it is
out his commune gardes champêtres, workmen, remembered that a large proportion of the country,
&c., who should instantly report to him the ap- the metropolis included, could take no share in the
proach and direction of any body of the enemy, subscriptions, and that local loans to an enormous
with an approximate estimate of their force and amount had been contracted in all quarters for
composition; and that this information should be purposes of defence, such a result was a striking
immediately despatched to the prefect, to be tele- proof of the internal resources of France, and of
graphed to the government. Every maire who failed confidence in the credit of the state.
in these details was to be tried by court-martial. Throughout October the French government

In the earlier part of the month the conduct continually appealed to England and the various of the extreme republicans, who alone of all European cabinets for interposition or assistance. the French nation showed themselves devoid of In an important interview with Lord Lyons on patriotic feelings, paralyzed the efforts of the large the 15th, the French delegate minister of Foreign

Imperialists, Legitimists, Orleanists, alike Affairs suggested that England, either singly or in laid aside their partialities and prejudices, and com- concert with other neutrals, should request Prussia bined with the government for the national defence. to state the conditions of peace which she would The extreme republicans alone preferred party accept; that France should then submit her views; to patriotism, caused dissension, sacrificed France, and that the neutral powers should in a conference, under pretence of saving her, and thus gave a or by exchanging notes, give out with authority dim presentiment of the terrible scenes which, in what in their opinion were equitable terms of Paris, were to aggravate the horrors of the war at peace, and call upon both belligerents to accept its close. Paris, Bordeaux, Rouen, Lille, Havre, them. M. de Chandordy seemed to think that all great centres of industry, nobly allowed both must of course listen to the voice of Europe ; nothing to interfere with the national defence; but as this was by no means probable, his sugwhile Lyons, Marseilles, Toulouse, and Toulon gestion was not adopted. were sources of weakness, rather than of strength, Count von Bismarck had indeed pretty plainly to the country. The establishment of communal intimated already the extent of the German terriinstitutions and of the extremest forms of repub- torial claims; for in a short despatch to Count licanism were deemed matters of greater impor- Bernstorff on the 1st October, in which he comtance than the expulsion of the invader. Ardent bated the statement of M. Favre, that “Prussia republican though he was, so ashamed was Gam- means to continue the war and to bring France betta of the conduct of the Lyons republicans, back to the position of a power of the second that on receiving the delegates of a committee rank,” he said :-" The cession of Strassburg and from that city he exclaimed, “Your commune of Metz, which we seek in territorial connection,


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