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Pèlerinage au lombeau de Danle, La Vie monastique dans les that brief period of fourteen years fully as large an amount of églises orientales (1844), La Suisse allemande, &c. One of her excellent work as any other artist that could be named; indeed, last works was devoted to the history of her own family, Gli we should properly say eleven years, for nothing of bis is known Albanesi in Roumenia: Storia dei Principi Ghika nei secoli of a later date than 1491. XVII-XIX (Florence, 1873). Her sister was Sophia, Countess In 1480 Ghirlandajo painted a “St Jerome " and other frescoes O'Rourke.
in the church of Ognissanti, Florence, and a life-sized “ Last 5. Scarlat Ghica (1750-1802) was twice prince of Walachia. Supper " in its refectory, noticeable for individual action and His grandson John (Ioan) Ghica (1817–1897), a lifelong friend expression. From 1481 to 1485 he was employed upon frescoes in of Turkey, was educated in Bucharest and in the West, and the Sala dell'Orologio in the Palazzo Vecchio; he painied the studied engineering and mathematics in Paris from 1837 to 1840; apotheosis of St Zenobius, a work beyond the size of life, with returning to Moldavia he was involved in the conspiracy of much architectural framework, figures of Roman heroes and 1841, which was intended to bring about the union of Walachia other detail, striking in perspective and structural propriety. and Moldavia under one native prince (Michael Sturdza). The While still occupied here, he was summoned to Rome by Pope conspiracy failed and John Ghica became a lecturer on mathe- Sixtus IV. to paint in the Sixtine chapel; he went thither in matics at the university which was founded by Prince Sturdza 1483. In the Sixtine he executed, probably before 1484, a in Jassy. In 1848 he joined the party of revolution and in the fresco which has few rivals in that series, “ Christ calling Peter name of a provisional government then established in Bucharest and Andrew to their Apostleship,”—a work which, though went to Constantinople to approach the Turkish government. somewhat deficient in colour, has greatness of method and much Whilst there he was appointed Bey of Samos (1853-1859), excellence of finish. The landscape background, in especial, where he extirpated piracy, rampant in that island. In 1859 | is very superior to anything to be found in the works, which had after the union of Moldavia and Walachia had been effected no doubt been zealously studied by Ghirlandajo, of Masaccio Prince Cuza induced John Ghica to return. He was the first and others in the Brancacci chapel. He also did some other prime minister under Prince (afterwards King) Charles of Hohen- works in Rome, now perished. Before 1485 he had likewise zollern. His restless nature made him join the anti-dynastic produced his frescoes in the chapel of S. Fina, in the Tuscan movement of 1870-1871. In 1881 he was appointed Rumanian town of S. Gimignano, remarkable for grandeur and grace, minister in London and retained this office until 1889. He died two pictures of Fina, dying and dead, with some accessory work. on the 7th of May 1897 in Gherghani. Besides his political Sebastian Mainardi assisted him in these productions in Rome distinction John Ghica earned a literary reputation by his and in S. Gimignano; and Ghirlandajo was so well pleased with “ Letters to Alexandri ” (2nd edition, 1887), his lifelong friend, his co-operation that he gave him his sister in marriage. written from London and describing the ancient state of He now returned to Florence, and undertook in the church Rumanian society, fast fading away. He was also the author of of the Trinita, and afterwards in S. Maria Novella, the works Amintiri din pribegie,“ Recollections of Exile in 1848" (Buchar- which have set the seal on his celebrity. The frescoes in the est, 1890) and of Convorbiri Economice, discussions on economic Sassetti chapel of S. Trinita are six subjects from the life of St questions (Bucharest, 1866–1873). He was the first to advocate Francis, along with some classical accessories, dated 1485. the establishment of national industry and commerce, and also, to Three of the principal incidents are “St Francis obtaining from a certain extent, principles of “exclusive dealing." (M. G.) Pope Honorius the approval of the Rules of his Order "; his
GHILZAI, a large and widespread Afghan tribe, who extend “Death and Obsequies," and the Resuscitation, by the interfrom Kalat-i-Ghilzai on the S. to the Kabul river on the position of the beatified saint, of a child of the Spini iamily, N., and from the Gul Koh range on the W. to the Indian border who had been killed by falling out of a window. In the first work on the E., in many places overflowing these boundaries. The is a portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici; and in the third the painter's popular theory of the origin of the Ghilzais traces them to the own likeness, which he introduced also into one of the pictures Turkish tribe of Kilji, once occupying districts bordering the in S. Maria Novella, and in the “ Adoration of the Magi” in the upper course of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes), and affirms that hospital of the Innocenti. The altar-piece of the Sassetti chapel, they were brought into Afghanistan by the Turk Sabuktagin the “Adoration of the Shepherds," is now in the Florentine in the roth century. However that may be, the Ghilzai clans Academy. Immediately after disposing of this commission, now rank collectively as second to none in strength of military Ghirlandajo was asked to renew the frescocs in the choir of S. and commercial enterprise. They are a fine, manly race of Maria Novella. This choir formed the chapel of the Ricci family, people, and it is from some of their most influential clans but the Tornabuoni and Tornaquinci families, then much more (Suliman Khel, Nasir Khel, Kharotis, &c.) that the main body opulent than the Ricci, undertook the cost of the restoration, of povindah merchants is derived.
under conditions, as to preserving the arms of the Ricci, which GHIRLANDAJO, DOMENICO (1449–1494), Florentine painter. gave rise in the end to some amusing incidents of litigation. The His full name is given as Domenico di Tommaso Curradi di frescoes, in the execution of which Domenico had many assistants, Doffo Bigordi; it appears therefore that his father's surname are in four courses along the three walls,-the leading subjects was Curradi, and his grandfather's Bigordi. The painter is being the lives of the Madonna and of the Baptist. Besides their generally termed Domenico Bigordi, but some authors give him, general richness and dignity of art, these works are particularly and apparently with reason, the paternal surname Curradi. interesting as containing many historical portraits-a method Ghirlandajo (garland-maker) was only a nickname, coming to of treatment in which Ghirlandajo was pre-eminently skilled. Domenico from the employment of his father (or else of his There are no less than twenty-one portraits of the Tornabuoni earliest instructor), who was renowned for fashioning the metallic and Tornaquinci families; in the subject of the “ Angel appearing garlands worn by Florentine damsels; he was not, however, to Zacharias," those of Politian, Marsilio Ficino and others; as some have said, the inventor of them. Tommaso was by in the "Salutation of Anna and Elizabeth," the beautiful vocation a jeweller on the Ponte Vecchio, or perhaps a broker. Ginevra de' Benci; in the “ Expulsion of Joachim from the Domenico, the eldest of eight children, was at first apprenticed Temple,” Mainardi and Baldovinetti (or the latter figure may to a jeweller or goldsmith, probably enough his own father; perhaps be Ghirlandajo's father). The Ricci chapel was reopened in his shop he was continually making portraits of the passers-by, and completed in 1490; the altar-piece, now removed írom the and it was thought expedient to place him with Alessio Baldo- chapel, was probably executed with the assistance of Domenico's vinetti to study painting and mosaic. His youthful years were, brothers, David and Benedetto, painters of ordinary calibre; however, entirely undistinguished, and at the age of thirty-one the painted window was from Domenico's own design. Other he had not a fixed abode of his own. This is remarkable, as distinguished works from his hand are an altar-piece in tempera immediately afterwards, from 1480 onwards to his death at a of the “ Virgin adored by Sts Zenobius, Justus and others," comparatively early age in 1494, he became the most proficient painted for the church of St Justus, but now in the Uffizi gallery, painter of his time, incessantly employed, and condensing into a remarkable masterpiece; “ Christ in glory with Romuald and other Saints,” in the Badia Volterra; the “ Adoration of the not clearly ascertained. He was certainly one of the earliest Magi," in the church of the Innocenti (already mentioned), students of the famous cartoons of Leonardo da Vinci and perhaps his finest panel-picture (1488); and the “ Visitation," Michelangelo. His works between the dates 1504 and 1508 in the Louvre, bearing the latest ascertained date (1491) of all show a marked influence from Fra Bartolommeo and Raphael, his works. Ghirlandajo did not often attempt the nude; one with the latter of whom he was on terms of familiar friendship; of his pictures of this character, “ Vulcan and his Assistants hence he progressed in selection of form and in the modelling forging Thunderbolts,” was painted for Lo Spedaletto, but (like and relief of his figures. Raphael, on reaching Rome in 1508, several others specified by Vasari) it exists no longer. . Two wished Ridolfo to join him; but the Florentine painter was of a portraits by him are in the National Gallery, London. The particularly home-keeping humour, and he neglected the oppormosaics which he produced date before 1491; one, of especial tunity. He soon rose to the head of the Florentine oil-painters celebrity, is the “ Annunciation," on a portal of the cathedral of his time; and, like his father, accepted all sorts of commissions, of Florence.
of whatever kind. He was prominent in the execution of vast In general artistic attainment Ghirlandajo may fairly be scenic canvases for various public occasions, such as the wedding regarded as exceeding all his precursors or competitors; though of Giuliano de' Medici, and the entry of Leo X. into Florence the names of a few, particularly Giotto, Masaccio, Lippo Lippi in 1515. In his prime he was honest and conscientious as an and Botticelli, stand higher for originating power. His scheme artist; but from about 1527 he declined, having already accumuof composition is grand and decorous; his chiaroscuro excellent,lated a handsome property, more than sufficient for maintaining and especially his perspectives, which he would design on a very in affluence his. large family of fifteen children, and his works elaborate scale by the eye alone; his colour is more open to became comparatively mannered and self-repeating. His sons criticism, but this remark applies much less to the frescoes than traded in France and in Ferrara; he himself took a part in comthe tempera-pictures, which are sometimes too broadly and mercial affairs, and began paying some attention to mosaic work, crudely bright. He worked in these two methods alone--never but it seems that, after completing one mosaic, the “ Annunciain oils; and his frescoes are what the Italians term “buon tion" over the door of the Annunziata, patience failed him for fresco," without any finishing in tempera. A certain hardness continuing such minute labours. In his old age Ridolfo was of outline, not imlike the character of bronze sculpture, may greatly disabled by gout. He appears to have been of a kindly, attest his early training in metal work. He first introduced easy-going character, much regarded by his friends and patrons. into Florentine art that mixture of the sacred and the profane The following are some of his leading works, the great majority which had already been practised in Siena. His types in figures of them being oil-pictures:of Christ, the Virgin and angels are not of the highest order; and
“Christ and the Maries on the road to Calvary," now in the Palazzo a defect of drawing, which has been often pointed out, is the Antinori, Florence, an early example, with figures of half life-size. meagreness of his hands and feet. It was one of his maxims that Leonardesque in style. In 1504, the “Coronation of the Virgin,
An " Annunciation " in the Abbey of Montoliveto near Florence, painting is designing.” Ghirlandajo was an insatiate worker, now in the Louvre. A" Nativity," very carefully exccuted, now in and expressed a wish that he had the entire circuit of the walls the Hermitage, St Petersburg, and ascribed in the catalogue to of Florence to paint upon. He told his shop-assistants not to
Granacci. A " Predella," in the oratory of the Bigallo, Florence, five refuse any commission that might offer, were it even for a lady's finished.' 'In 1514, on the ceiling of the chapel of St Bernard in the
panels, representing the Nativity and other subjects, charmingly petticoat-panniers: if they would not execute such work, he Palazzo Pubblico, Florence, a fresco of the “ Trinity," with heads of would. Not that he was in any way grasping or sordid in money- the twelve apostles and other accessories, and the Annunciation "; matters, as is proved by the anecdote of the readiness with which also the :: Assumption of the Virgin, who bestows her girdle on St he gave up a bonus upon the stipulated price of the Ricci chapel date, a picture showing his highest skill, replete with expression,
Thomas," in the choir loft of Prato cathedral. Towards the same frescoes, offered by the wealthy Tornabuoni in the first instance, vigorous life, and firm accomplished pictorial method, now in the but afterwards begrudged. Vasari says that Ghirlandajo was gallery of the Uffizi, “St Zenobius resuscitating a child "; also the the first to abandon in great part the use of gilding in his pictures, translation of the remains of the same Saint. The “ Virgin and
In 1521, the "Pietà," representing by genuine painting any objects supposed to be at S. Agostino, Colle di Valdelsa, life-sized. Towards 1526, the gilded; yet this does not hold good without some considerable
Assumption," now in the Berlin Museum, containing the painter's exceptions--the high lights of the landscape, for instance, in own portrait. An excellent portrait of " Cosimo de' Medici " (the the “ Adoration of the Shepherds,” now in the Florence Academy, Great) in youth. In 1543, a series of frescoes in the monastery of being put in in gold. Many drawings and sketches by this
the Angeli. In the National Gallery, London, is “ The Procession
to Calvary." A great number of altar-pieces were executed by painter are in the Uffizi gallery, remarkable for vigour of outline. Ghirlandajo, with the assistance of his favourite pupil, currently One of the great glories of Ghirlandajo is that he gave some named Michele di Ridolfo. Another of his pupils was Mariano early art-education to Michelangelo, who cannot, however, have da Pescia.
(W. M. R.) remained with him long. F. Granacci was another of his pupils. GHOR, or GĦUR, an ancient kingdom of Afghanistan. The
This renowned artist died of pestilential fever on the 11th of name of Ghor was in the middle ages, and indeed locally still is, January 1494, and was buried in S. Maria Novella. He had applied to the highlands east of Herat, extending eastward been twice married, and left six children, three of them being to the upper Helmund valley, or nearly so. Ghor is the southern
He had a long and honourable line oi descendants, which portion of that great peninsula of strong mountain country came to a close in the 17th century, when the last members of which forms the western part of modern Afghanistan. The the race entered monasteries. It is probable that Domenico died northern portion of the peninsula was in the middle ages compoor; he appears to have been gentle, honourable and con- prehended under the names of Gharjistān (on the west), and scientious, as well as energetically diligent.
Juzjänä (on the east), whilst the basin of the Herat river, and all The biography of Ghirlandajo is carefully worked out in Crowe south of it, constituted Ghor. The name as now used does not and Cavalcaselle's book. A recent German work on the subject is include the valley of the Herat river; on the south the limit that of Ernst Steinmann (1897). See also Codex Escurialensis, ein Skizzenbuch aus der Werkstall Domenico Ghirlandaios (texts and
seems to be the declivity of the higher mountains dominating plates), by Chr. Hülsen, Adoll Michaclis and Hermann Egger in the the descent to the lower Helmund, and the road from Farah Sonderschriften des österr. archaol. Iustituts in Wien (2 vols., 1906), to Kandahar. It is in Ghor that rise all those affluents of the and cf. T. Ashby in Classical Quarlerly (April 1909). (W. M. R.)
closed basin of Seistan, the Hari-rud, the Farah-rud, the KhashGHIRLANDAJO, RIDOLFO (1483-1560), son of Domenico rud, besides other considerable streams joining the Helmund Ghirlandajo, Florentine painter, was born on the 14th of February above Girishk. 1483, and, being less than eleven years old when his father died, Ghor is mentioned in the Shahnama of Firdousi (A.D. 1010), was brought up by his uncle David. To this second-rate artist and in the Arab geographers of that time, though these latter he owed less in the way of professional training than to Granacci, fail in details almost as much as we moderns, thus indicating how Piero di Cosimo and perhaps Cosimo Rosselli. It has been said little accessible the country has been through all ages. Ibn that Ridolfo studied also under Fra Bartolommeo, but this is Haukal's map of Khorasan (c. 976) shows Jibül-al-Ghūr, “the
hill-country of Ghor," as a circle ring-fenced with mountains. princes of Ghor experienced, about the middle of the 13th His brief description speaks of it as a land fruitful in crops, century, a revival of power, which endured for 140 years. This cattle and flocks, inhabited by infidels, except a few who passed later dynasty bore the name of Kurt or Kårt. The first of for Mahommedans, and indicates that, like other pagan countries historical prominence was Malik Shamsuddin Kurt, descended surrounded by Moslem populations, it was regarded as a store by his mother from the great king Ghiyasuddin Ghori, whilst his of slaves for the faithful. The boundary of Ghor in ascending other grandfather was that prince's favourite minister. In 1245 the valley of the Hari-rud was six and a half easy marches from Shamsuddin held the lordship of Ghor in some kind of alliance Herat, at Chist, two marches above Obeh.
with, or subordination to, the Mongols, who had not yet definiThe chief part of the present population of Ghor are Taimanis, tively established themselves in Persia; and in 1248 he received belonging to the class of nomad or semi-nomad clans called from the Great Khan Mangu an investiture of all the provinces Aimāk, intermingled with Zuris and Tajiks.
from Merv to the Indus, including by name Sijistan (or Seistan), The people and princes of Ghor first become known to us in Kabul, Tirah (adjoining the Khyber pass), and Afghanistan connexion with the Ghaznevid dynasty, and the early medieval (a very early occurrence of this name), which he ruled from Herat. histories of Ghor and Ghazni are so intertwined that little need He stood well with Hulagu, and for a long time with his son be added on that subject to what will be found under GHAZNI Abaka, but at last incurred the latter's jealousy, and was poisoned (9.0.). What we read of Ghor shows it as a country of lofty when on a visit to the court at Tabriz (1276). His son Ruknuddin mountains and fruitful valleys, and of numerous strongholds Kurt was, however, invested with the government of Khorasan held by a variety of hill-chieftains ruling warlike clans whose (1278), but after some years, mistrusting his Tatar suzerains, habits were rise with feuds and turbulence,-indeed, in character he withdrew into Ghor, and abode in his strong fortress of Kaissar strongly resembling the tribes of modern Afghanistan, though till his death there in 1305. The family held on through a there seems no good reason to believe that they were of Afghan succession of eight kings in all, sometimes submissive to the race. It is probable that they were of old Persian blood, like Mongol, sometimes aiming at independence, sometimes for a the older of those tribes which still occupy the country. It is series of prosperous years adding to the strength and splendour of possibly a corroboration of this that, in the 14th century, when Herat, and sometimes sorely buffeted by the hosts of masterless one of the Ghori kings, of the Kurt dynasty reigning in Herat, Tatar brigands that tore Khorasan and Persia in the decline had taken to himself some of the insignia of independent of the dynasties of Hulagu and Jagatai. It is possible that sovereignty, an incensed Mongol prince is said to have reviled the Kurts might have established a lasting Tajik kingdom at him as "an insolent Tajik.” Sabuktagin of Ghazni, and his Herat, but in the time of the last of the dynasty, Ghiyasuddin famous son Mahmud, repeatedly invaded the mountain country Pir-'Ali, Tatardom, reorganized and re-embodied in the person which so nearly adjoined their capital, subduing its chiefs for of Timur, came against Herat, and carried away the king and the moment, and exacting tribute; but when the immediate the treasures of his dynasty (1380). A revolt and massacre pressure was withdrawn, the yoke was thrown off and the tribute of his garrison provoked Timur's vengeance; he put the captive withheld. In 1020 Masa'ud, the son of Mahmud, being then king to death, came against the city a second time, and showed governor of Khorasan, made a systematic invasion of Ghor from it no mercy (1383). Ghor has since been obscure in history. the side of Herat, laying siege to its strongholds one after the The capital of the kingdom of Ghor, when its princes were other, and subduing the country more effectually than ever rising to dominion in the 12th century, was Firoz Koh, where before. About a century later one of the princely families of a city and fortress were founded by Saifuddin Suri. The exact Ghor, deriving the appellation of Shansabi, or Shansabaniah, position of Firoz Koh is difficult to deter unless it be from a certain ancestor Shansab, of local fame, and of alleged represented by the ruins of one or other of the ancient cities descent from Zohak, acquired predominance in all the country, in the upper Murghab valley, the habitat of the - Firoz Kohi and at the time mentioned Malik 'Izzuddin al Hosain of this section of the Chahar Aimāk, which were visited by the surfamily came to be recognized as lord of Ghor. He was known veyors of the Russo-Afghan boundary delimitation of 1884–1885. afterwards as “the Father of Kings," from the further honour to Extensive ruins were also found at Taiwara on one of the main which several of his seven sons rose. Three of these were-(1) affluents of the Farah Rud, where walls and terraces still existing Amir Kutbuddin Mahommed, called the lord of the Jibal or supported the local tradition that this place was the ancient mountains; (2) Sultan Saifuddin Suri, for a brief period master capital of Ghor. The valleys of the Taimani tribes though of Ghazni,-both of whom were put to death by Bahram the narrow are fertile and well cultivated, and there are many Ghaznevid; and (3) Sultan Alauddin Jahansoz, who wreaked walled villages and forts about Parjuman and Zarni in the southsuch terrible vengeance upon Ghazni. Alauddin began the con- eastern districts. The peak of “ Chalap Dalan " (described by quests which were afterwards immensely extended both in India Ferrier as “one of the highest in the world ") is the Kob-i-Kaisar, and in the west by his nephews Ghiyasuddin Mahommed b. Sam which is a trifle over 13,000 ft. in height. All the country now and Mahommed Ghori (Muizuddin b. Sam or Shahabuddin b. known as Ghor was mapped during the progress of the Russo Sam), and for a brief period during their rule it was boasted, Afghan boundary delimitation. with no great exaggeration, that the public prayer was read in See the "Tabakát-i-Násiri," in the Bibl. Indica, transl. by Raverty: the name of the Ghori from the extremity of India to the borders Journal asiatique, ser. v. tom. xvii.; " Ibn Haukal," in 1. As. Soc. of Babylonia, and from the Oxus to the Straits of Ormus. After Beng. vol. xxii.; Ferrier's Caravan Journeys; Hammer's Ilkhans, &c. the death of Mahommed Ghori, Mahmud the son of Ghiyasuddin GHOST (a word common to the W. Teutonic languages; was proclaimed sovereign (1 200) throughout the territories of 0.E. gæst, Dutch, geest, Ger. Geist), in the sense now prevailGhor, Ghazni and Hindustan. But the Indian dominion, from ing, the spirit of a dead person considered as appearing in his uncle's death, became entirely independent, and his actual some visible or sensible form to the living (see APPARITIONS; authority was confined to Ghor, Seistan and Herat. The whole PSYCHICAL RESEARCH,“ Phantasms of the Dead"; SPIRITUALISH). kingdom fell to pieces before the power of Mahommed Shah In the earlier and wider sense of spirit in general, or of the of Khwarizm and his son Jelaluddin (c. 1214-1215), a power in principle of life, the word is practically obsolete. The language its turn to be speedily shattered by the Mongol flood.
of the Authorized Version of the Bible, however, has preserved Besides the thrones of Ghor and Ghazni, the Shansabaniah the phrase " to give up the ghost,” still sometimes used of dying. family, in the person of Fakhruddin, the eldest of the seven sons The Spirit of God, too, the third person of the Trinity, is still of Malik 'Izzuddin, founded a kingdom in the Oxus basin, having called, not in the technical language of theology only, the Holy its seat at BAMIAN (9.0.), which endured for two or three genera- Ghost. The adjective "ghostly” is still occasionally used for tions, till extinguished by the power of Khwarizm (1214). And spiritual ” (cf. the Ger. geistlich) as contrasted with " bodily," the great Mussulman empire of Delhi was based on the conquests especially in such combinations as "ghostly counsel," " ghostly of Muizuddin the Ghorian, carried out and consolidated by his comfort." We may even speak of a "ghostly adviser," though Turki freedmen, Kutbuddin Aibak and his successors. The I not without a touch of affectation; on the other hand, the phrase
"ghostly man " for a clergyman (d. the Ger, Geistlicher) is in which that position was assumed, gave rise to a lifelong conan archaism the use of which could only be justified by poeticflict between Giannone and the Church; and in spite of his licence, as in Tennyson's Elaine (1094). The word “ghost,” retractation in prison at Turin, he deserves the palm-as hc cerfrom the shadowy and unsubstantial quality attributed to the tainly endured the sufferings-of a confessor and martyr in the apparitions of the dead, has come also to be commonly used cause of what he deemed historical truth. Hooted by the mob to emphasize the want of force or substance generally, in such of Naples, and excommunicated by the archbishop's court, he phrases as “ not the ghost of a chance," " not the ghost of an was forced to leave Naples and repair to Vienna. Meanwhile idea.” It is also applied to those literary and artistic “ hacks " the Inquisition had attested after its own fashion the value of who are paid to do work for which others get the credit.
his history by putting it on the Index. At Vienna the favour of GHOST DANCE, an American-Indian ritual dance, sometimes the emperor Charles VI. and of many leading personages at the called the Spirit Dance, the dancers wearing a white cloak. It is Austrian court obtained for him a pension and other facilities connected with the doctrine of a Messiah, which arose in Nevada for the prosecution of his historical studies. Of these the most among the Paiute Indians in 1888 and spread to other tribes. important result was Il Triregno, ossia del regno del cielo, della A young Paiute Indian medicine-man, known as Wovoka, and terra, e del papa. On the transfer of the Neapolitan crown to called Jack Wilson by the whites, proclaimed that he had had Charles of Bourbon, Giannone lost his Austrian pension and was a revelation, and that, if this ghost dance and other ceremonies compelled to remove to Venice. There he was at first most were duly performed, the Indians would be rid of the white men. favourably received. The post of consulting lawyer to the reThe movement led to a sort of craze among the Indian tribes, public, in which he might have continued the special work of and in 1890 it was one of the causes of the Sioux outbreak. Fra Paolo Sarpi, was offered to him, as well as that of professor
See J. Mooney, 141h Report (1896) of Bureau of American Ethnology. of public law in Padua; but he declined both offers. Unhappily
GIACOMETTI, PAOLO (1816–1882), Italian dramatist, born at there arose a suspicion that his views on maritime law were not Novi Ligure, was educated in law at Genoa, but at the age of favourable to the pretensions of Venice, and this suspicion, twenty had some success with his play Rosilda and then de- not withstanding all his efforts to dissipate it, together with voted himself to the stage. ressed circumstances made him clerical intrigues, led to his expulsion from the state. On the attach himself as author to various touring Italian companies, 23rd of Seplember 1735 he was scized and conveyed to Ferrara. and his output was considerable; moreover, such actors as After wandering under an assumed name for three months through Ristori, Rossi and Salvini made many of these plays great Modena, Milan and Turin, he at last reached Geneva, where he successes. Among the best of them were La Donna (1850), enjoyed the friendship of the most distinguished citizens, and Lu Donna in seconde nozze (1851), Giuditta (1857), Sofocle (1860), was on excellent terms with the great publishing firms. But in La Morle civile (1880). A collection of his works was published an evil hour he was induced to visit a Catholic village within at Milan in eight volumes (1859 et seq.).
Sardinian territory in order to hear mass on Easter day, where GIAMBELLI (or GIANIBELLI), FEDERIGO, Italian military he was kidnapped by the agents of the Sardinian government, engineer, was born at Mantua about the middle of the 16th conveyed to the castle of Miolans and thence successively transcentury. Having had some experience as a military engineer ferred to Ceva and Turin. In the fortress of Turin he remained in Italy, he went to Spain to offer his services to Philip II. His immured during the last twelve years of his life, although part proposals were, however, lukewarmly received, and as he could of his time was spent in composing a defence of the Sardinian obtain from the king no immediate employment, he took up his interests as opposed to those of the papal court, and he was led to residence at Antwerp, where he soon gained considerable reputa- sign a retractation of the statements in his history most obnoxious tion for his knowledge in various departments of science. He to the Vatican (1738). But after his recantation his detention is said to have vowed to be revenged for his rebuff at the was made less severe and he was allowed many alleviations. He Spanish court; and when Antwerp was besieged by the duke died on the 7th of March 1748, in his seventy-second year. of Parma in 1584, he put himself in communication with Queen Giannone's style as an Italian writer has been pronounced to Elizabeth, who, having satisfied herself of his abilities, engaged bé below a severe classical model; he is often inaccurate as to the him to aid by his counsels in its defence. His plans for provision-facts, for he did not always work from original authorities (see ing the town were rejected by the senate, but they agreed to a A. Manzoni, Storia della colonna infame), and he was sometimes modification of his scheme for destroying the famous bridge guilty of unblushing plagiarism. But his very ease and freewhich closed the entrance to the town from the side of the sea, dom have helped to make his volumes more popular than many by the conversion of two ships of 60 and 70 tons into insernal works of greater classical renown. In England the just appreciamachines. One of these exploded, and, besides destroying tion of his labours by Gibbon, and the ample use made of them in more than 1000 soldiers, effccted a breach in the structure of the later volumes of The Decline and Fall, early secured him his more than 200 ft. in width, by which, but for the hesitation rightful place in the estimation of English scholars. of Admiral Jacobzoon, the town might at once have been relieved. The story of his life has been recorded in the Vita by L. Panzini, After the surrender of Antwerp Giambelli went to England, in the Milan edition of the historian's works (1823); whilst a more
which is based on Giannone's unpublished Autobiografia and printed where he was engaged for some time in fortifying the river complete estimate of his literary and political importance may be Thames; and when the Spanish Armada was attacked by fire-formed by the perusal of the collected edition of the works written ships in the Calais roads, the panic which ensued was very by him in his Turin prison, published in Turin in 1859--under the largely due to the conviction among the Spaniards that the fire universally recognized as one of the first authorities in Italy on
care of the distinguished statesman Pasquale Stanislao Mancini, ships were infernal machines constructed by Giambelli. He is questions relating to the history of his native Naples, and especially said to have died in London, but the year of his death is unknown. of the conflicts between the civil power and the Church. See also
See Motley's History of the United Netherlands, vols. i. and ii. R. Mariano, “ Giannone e Vico, in the Rivista contemporanea GIANNONE, PIETRO (1676-1748), was born at Ischitella, (1869); G, Ferrari, La Asente di Pietro Giannone (1868). G. Bonacci's
Saggio sulla Storia civile del Giannone (Florence, 1903) is a bitter in the province of Capitanata, on the 7th of May 1676. Arriving attack on Giannone, and although the writer's remarks on the in Naples at the age of eighteen, he devoted himself to the study plagiarisms in the Storia civile are justified, the charge of servility is of law, but his legal pursuits were much surpassed in importance greatly exaggerated. by his literary labours. He devoted twenty years to the composi- GIANNUTRI (Gr. 'Apreulomov, Lat. Dianium), an island of tion of his great work, the Storia civile del regno di Napoli, Italy, about 1 sq. m. in total area, 19 m. S.E. of Giglio and about which was ultimately published in 1723. Here in his account of rom. S. of the promontory of Monte Argentario (see ORBETELLO). the rise and progress of the Neapolitan laws and government, he | The highest point is 305 ft. above sea-level. It contains the ruins warmly espoused the side of the civil power in its conflicts with of a large Roman villa, near the Cala Maestra on the E. coast the Roman Catholic hierarchy. His merit lies in the fact that he of the island. The buildings may be divided into five groups: was the first to deal systematically with the question of Church (1) a large cistern in five compartments, each measuring 39 by and State, and the position thus taken up by him, and the manner 17 st.; (2) habitations both for the owners and for slaves, and store-rooms; (3) baths; (4) habitations for slaves; (5) belvedere. stature would be at least 12 to 14 ft., which is a height no human The brick-stamps found begin in the Flavian and end with the being has been proved on sufficient evidence to have approached Hadrianic period. The villa may have belonged to the Domitii (Anthropom. p. 302). Modern statisticians cannot accept the Ahenobarbi, who certainly under the republic had property loose conclusion in Buffon (Hist. nat., ed. Sonnini, iv. 134) in the island of Igilium (Giglio) and near Cosa.
that there is no doubt of giants having been 10, 12, and perhaps See G. Pellegrini in Notizie degli scavi (1900), 609 seq.
15 ft. high. Confidence is not even to be placed in ancient GIANT (O.E. geant, through Fr. géant, O.Fr. goiani, jaiant, asserted measurements, as where Pliny gives to one Gabbaras, jéant, med. pop. Lat. gugante-cf. Ital. giganteby assimilation an Arabian, the stature of 9 ft 9 in. (about 9 ft. 5. in. English), from gigantem, acc. of Lat. gigas, Gr. viyas). The idea conveyed capping this with the mention of Posio and Secundilla, who by the word in classic mythology is that of beings more or less were half a foot higher. That two persons should be described manlike, but monstrous in size and strength. Figures like the as both having this same extraordinary measure suggests to the Titans and the Giants whose birth from Heaven and Earth is modern critic the notion of a note jotted down on the philo. sung by Hesiod in the Theogony, such as can heap up mountains sopher's tablets, and never tested afterwards. to scale the sky and war beside or against the gods, must be Under these circumstances it is worth while to ask how it is treated, with other like monstrous figures of the wonder-tales that legend and history so abound in mentions of giants outside of the world, as belonging altogether to the realms of mythology. all probable dimensions of the human frame. One cause is that, But there also appear in the legends of giants some with historic when the story-teller is asked the actual stature of the huge significance. The ancient and commonly repeated explanation men who figure in his tales, he is not sparing of his inches and of the Greek word yiyas, as connected with or derived from feet. What exaggeration can do in this way may be judged from umyerns, or "earth-born," is etymologically doubtful, but at the fact that the Patagonians, whose average height (5 ft. 11 in.) any rate the idea conveyed by it was familiar to the ancient is really about that of the Chirnside men in Berwickshire, are Greeks, that the giants were earth-born or indigenous races described in Pigafetta's Voyage round the World as so monstrous (see Welcker, Griechische Götterlehre, i. 787). The Bible (the that the Spaniards' heads hardly reached their waists. It is English reader must be cautioned that the word giant has reasonable to suppose, with Professor Nilsson (Primilise 13been there used ambiguously, from the Septuagint downwards) habitants of Scandinavia, chap. vi.), that in the traditions of touches the present matter in so far as it records the traditions early Europe tribes of savages may have thus, if really tall, of the Israelites of fighting in Palestine with tall races of the expanded into giants, or; if short, dwindled into dwarfs. Another land such as the Anakim (Numb. xii. 33; Deut. ii. 10, iii. II; cause which is clearly proved to have given rise to giant-myths 1 Sam. xvii. 4). When reading in Homer of “the Cyclopes and of yet more monstrous type has been the discovery of great the wild tribes of the Giants," or of the adventures of Odysseus fossil bones, as of mammoth or mastodon, which were formerly in the cave of Polyphemus (Homer, Odyss. vii. 206; ix.), we supposed to be bones of giants (see Tylor, Early History of seem to come into view of dim traditions, exaggerated through Mankind, chap. xi.; Primitive Culture, chap. a.). A tooth the mist of ages, of pre-Hellenic barbarians, godless, cannibal, weighing 41 lb and a thigh-bone 17 ft. long having been found skin-clothed, hurling huge stones in their rude warfarc. Giant- in New England in 1712 (they were probably mastodon), Dr legends of this class are common in Europe and Asia, where the Increase Mather thereupon communicated to the Royal Society big and stupid giants would seem to have been barbaric tribes of London his theory of the existence of men of prodigious exaggerated into monsters in the legends of those who dis- stature in the antediluvian world (see the Philosophical possessed and slew them. In early times it was usual for cities Transactions, xxiv. 85; D. Wilson, Prehistoric Man, i. 54). to have their legends of giants. Thus London had Gog and The giants in the streets of Basel and supporting the arms of Magog, whose effigies (14 ft. high) still stand in the Guildhall Lucerne appear to have originated from certain fossił bones (see GoG); Antwerp had her Antigonus, 40 ft. high; Douai found in 1577, examined by the physician Felix Plater, and had Gayant, 22 ft. high, and so on.
pronounced to have belonged to a giant some 16 or 19 ft. high. Besides the conception of giants, as special races distinct These bones have since been referred to a very different geological from mankind, it was a common opinion of the ancients that the genus, but Plater's giant skeleton was accepted early in the human race had itself degenerated, the men of primeval ages 19th century as a genuine relic of the giants who once inhabited having been of so far greater stature and strength as to be in the earth. Of giants in real life whose stature has been authenticfact gigantic. This, for example, is received by Pliny (Hist. ally recorded Quetelet gives the palm to Frederick the Great's Nat. vii. 16), and it becomes a common doctrine of theologians Scotch giant, who measured about 8 ft. 3 in. But since his time such as Augustine (De civilate Dei, xv. 9), lasting on into times there have been several giants who have equalled or surpassed so modern that it may be found in Cruden's Concordance. Yet this figure. Patrick Cotler, an Irishman, who died at Clifton, so far as can be judged from actual remains, it does not appear Bristol, in 1802, was 8 ft. 7 in. high. The famous “ Irish giant that giants, in the sense of tribes of altogether superhuman O'Brien (Charles Byrne), whose skeleton is preserved in the stature, ever existed, or that the men of ancient time were museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, was 8 ft. 4 in. on the whole taller than those now living. It is now usual Chang (Chang-woo-goo), who appeared in London in 1865-1865 to apply the word giant not to superhuman beings but merely and again in 1880, was 8 ft. 2 in. Josef Winkelmaier, an Austrian, to unusually tall men and women. In every race of mankind exhibited in London on the roth of January 1887, was 8 ft. 9 in.; the grcat mass of individuals do not depart far from a certain while Elizabeth Lyska, a Russian child of twelve, when shown mean or average height, while the very tall or very short men in London in 1889, had already reached 6 ft. 8 in. Machnow, become less and less numerous as they depart from the mean a Russian, born at Charkow, was exhibited in London in his standard, till the utmost divergence is reached in a very few twenty-third year in 1905; he then stood 9 ft. 3 in., and weighed giants on the one hand, and a very few dwarfs on the other. At 360 tb (25 st. 10 lb). From his wrist to the top of his second both ends of the scale, the body is usually markedly out of the finger he measured 2 ft. (see The Times, roth February 1905). ordinary proportions; thus a giant's head is smaller and a The whole subject of giant myths and the now entirely exploded dwarf's head larger than it would be if an average man had theory that mankind has, as far as stature is concerned, degenerated been magnified or diminished. The principle of the distribution by M'M. P. E. Launois and P. Roy, entitled Etudes biologiques su
since prehistoric times, has been ably dealt with in a volume published of individuals of different sizes in a race or nation has been ably les géans (Paris, 1904). See also E. J. Wood, Gianls and Ducrfs set forth by Quetelet (Physique sociale, vol. i.; Anthropométrie, (1860). books iii. and iv.). Had this principle been understood formerly, GIANTS CAUSEWAY, a promontory of columnar basalt, we might have been spared the pains of criticizing assertions situated on the north coast of county Antrim, Ireland. It is as to giants 20 ft. high, or even more, appearing among mankind. divided by whin-dykes into the Little Causeway, the Middle The appearance of an individual man 20 ft. high involves the Causeway or “Honeycomb," as it is locally termed, and the existence of the race he is an extreme member of, whose mean | Larger or Grand Causeway. The pillars composing it are