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BOAT-RACES; see Dogget, and University. England at near 1,000,000 of acres. In Jan. 1849, The London rowing club beat the Atalanta rowing Mr. Rees Reece took out a patent for certain club in a four-oared race on the Thames, 10 June, valuable products from Irish peat. Candles and 1872.
various other articles produced from peat have been
since sold in London. Fuel for railway engines and BOCCACIO'S DECAMERONE, a col- other purposes is now made from peat (April, 1873). lection of a hundred stories or novels (many very immoral), severely satirising the clergy, feigned to
BOGUE FORTS, see China, 1841. have been related in ten days, during the plague of BOHEMIA, formerly the Hercynian forest Florence in 1348. Boccacio lived 1313-75. A copy (Boiemum, Tacitus), derives its name from the Boii, of the first edition (that of Valdarfer, in 1471) was a Celtic tribe. It was governed by dukes (Borzivoi knocked down at the duke of Roxburgh's sale, the first, 891), till Ottocar assumed the title of king, to the duke of Marlborough, for 22601., 17 June, 1198. The kings at first held their territory from 1812. This copy was afterwards sold' by public the empire: and the crown was elective till it came auction, for 875 guineas, 5 June, 1819.
to the house of Austria, in which it is now here
ditary. The original Bohemians term themselves BODLEIAN LIBRARY, Oxford, founded Czechs, and, following the example of Hungary, in 1598, and opened in 1602, by sir Thos. Bodley now call for autonomy. Prague, the capital, is (died, 28 Jan. 1612). It is open to the public, and famous for sieges and battles. Population in 1857, claims a copy of all works published in this country. 4,705,525; in 1870, 5,140,544; see Prague. In 1868, it contained about 250,000 volumes For rare works and MSS. it is said to be second only to
The Czechs (Slavonians) seize Bohemia about
ity of Prague founded the Vatican. Mr. Macray's “Annals of the Bodleian Introduction of Christianity
894 library,” published 1868.
Bohemia conquered by the emperor Henry III. who
spreads devastation through the country BEOTIA, a division of Greece, north of Attica, Ottocar (Premislas) I., first king of Bohemia 1198 known previously as Aonia, Messapia, Hyantis, Ottocar II. rules over Austria, and obtains Styria, Ogygia, and Cadmeis. Thebes, the capital, was
&c., 1253 ; refuses the imperial crown
1272 celebrated for the exploits and misfortunes of its
Ottocar vanquished by the emperor Rudolph and
deprived of Austria, Styria, and Carniola, 1277 ; kings and heroes. The term Baotian was used by
killed at Marchfeld
26 Aug. 1278 the Athenians as a synonym for dulness; but un King John (blind), slain at the battle of Crecy
1346 justly, --since Pindar, Hesiod, Plutarch, Democritus, John Huss and Jerome of Prague, two of the first Epaminondas, and Corinna, were Boeotians. The reformers, burnt for heresy ; which occasions an
insurrection early history and dates are mythical ; see Thebes.
Ziska, leader of the Hussites, takes Prague, 1419"; Arrival of Cadmus, founder of Cadmea (Hales, 1494 ;
dies of the plague Clinton, 1313)
Albert, duke of Austria, marries the daughter of the
B.C. 1493 Reign of Polydore .
late emperor and king, and receives the crowns of Labdachus ascends the throne
Bohemia and Hungary Amphion and Zethus besiege Thebes, and dethrone The succession intringed by Ladislas, son of the Larus
king of Poland, and George Podiebrad, a protes
tant chief Myth of Edipus ; he kills in an affray his father
Latlislas, king of Poland, elected king of Bohemia, Laius: confirming the oracle foretelling his death
on the death of Podiebrad by the hands of his son, 1276; resolves the
The emperor Ferdinand I. marries Anne, sister of Sphinx's enigmas
1266 War of the Seven Captains
Louis the late king, and obtains the crown
1527 Thebes besieged and taken
The emperor Ferdinand II., oppressing the protesThersander reigns 1198 ; slain
tants, is deposed, and Frederic the elector-palaThe Thebans abolish royalty (ages of obscurity
tine, elected king
5 Sept. 1619
Frederie, totally defeated at Prague, filees to follow)
Holland The Thebans fight with the Persians against the
9 Nov. 1620
Bohemia secured to Austria by treaty Greeks at Platira
Silesia and Glatz ceded to Prussia The Spartans aiding the Thebans defeat the Athenians near Tanagra
Prague taken by the Prussians
1744 Battle of Coronea, in which the Thebans defeat the Prussians defeat Austrians at Prague
Revolt of the peasantry
Edict of Toleration promulgated
1781 enrol their Sacred Band, and join Athens against
The French occupy Prague
Insurrection at Prague, 12 June; submission, state Sparta Epaminondas defeats 'the Lacedaemonians at
of siege raised
20 July, 1848
The Prussians enter Bohemia, which becomes the Leuctra, and restores Thebes to independence
371 Pelopidas killed at the battle of Cynoscephala
seat of war (see Germany, 1866). 364
24 June, 1866
Agitation of the Czechs, who require the emperor Epaminondas gains the victory of Mantinea, but is
to be crowned king of Bohemia with the crown of
362 Philip, king of Macedon, defeats the Thebans and St. Wenceslas at Prague,
Riots at Prague ; habeas corpus act suspended, Athenians near Charonea
10 Oct. 1868 Alexander destroys Thebes, but spares the house of
Bohemian agitation for self-government ; addresses Pindar
to the emperor The Baotian confederacy dissolved by the Romans
14 Sept. and 5 Oct. 1870
Manifesto of the emperor Baotia henceforth partook of the fortunes of
14 Sept. 1871
Bohemian deputies absent from the reichsrath, Greece ; and was conquered by the Turks under A.D.
Dec. Mahomet II.
1198. Premislas Ottocar I. BOGOTA, SANTA FÈ DE, capital of New 1230. Wenceslas III. Grenada (which see).
1253. Premislas Ottocar II.
1278. Wenceslas IV., king of Poland. BOGS, probably the remains of forests, covered 1305. Wenceslas V. with peat and loose soil. An act for the drainage
1306. Rudolph of Austria. of Irish bogs, passed March, 1830. The bog-land of 1307. Henry of Carinthia.
1310. John of Luxenburg (killed at Crecy). Ireland has been estimated at 3,000,000 acres; that 1346. Charles I., emperor (1347). of Scotland at upwards of 2,000,000; and that of | 1378. Wenceslas VI. emperor.
1213 • 1193
6 May, 1757
• 17 Oct.
1419. Sigismund I., emperor.
The country declared its independence, 6 Aug. 1824 1438. Albert of Austria, enperor.
Secured by the victory of Ayacucho, 1440. Ladislas V.
Took the name of Bolivia, in honour of general 1458. George von Podiebrad.
11 Aug. 1825 1471. Ladislas VI., king of Hungary (in 1490).
25 May, 1826 1516. Louis, king of Hungary (killed at Mohatz).
. 1836 1526. Bohemia united to Austria under Ferdinand I. General Sucre governed ably
1826-8 elected king. See Germany, emperors. Santa Cruz ruled
1828-34 Free-trade proclaimed
1853 BOHEMIAN BRETHREN, a body of General Cordova, president
1855-7 Christians in Bohemia, appear to have separated Succeeded by the dictator José Maria Linares from the Calixtines (which see), a branch of the
31 March, 1859 Hussites in 1467 Dupin says "They rejected the George Cordova, constitutional president sacraments of the church, were governed by simple General Medyarejo defeats the troops of president
May, 1861 laics, and held the scriptures for their only rule of De Acha.
28 Dec. 1864 faith. They presented a confession of faith to king Becomes dictator of the republic
Feb. 1865 Ladislas in 1504 to justify themselves from errors
Puts down an insurrection under Belzu, March, 1865 laid to their charge.” They appear to have had Totally defeats Arguedas at Viucha and publishes
an amnesty communication with the Waldenses, but were dis
24 Jan. 1866 tinct from them. Luther, in 1533, testifies to their Proclaims an amnesty
Suppresses a revolt
21 Dec. 1867 purity of doctrine, and Melanchthon commends The president, A. Morales, 1871 ; said to have been their discipline. They were dispersed during the murdered
Jan. 1873 religious wars of Germany in the 17th century.
BOLLANDISTS, see Acta Sanctorum. BOII, a Celtic people of N. Italy, who emigrated into Italy, and were defeated at the Vadimonian sina, afterwards Bononia, a city distinguished for
BOLOGNA (central Italy) the ancient Fellake, 283*B.C. They were finally subdued by Scipio its architecture, made a Roman colony, 189 B.C. Nasica, 191 B.C. BOILING OF LIQUIDS. Dr. Hooke, about A university said to have been founded by Theo
1116 1863, ascertained that liquids were not increased in
dosius, about 433 : really in
Bologna joins the Lombard League heat after they had once begun to boil, and that a
1167 fierce fire only made them boil more rapidly. The Pope Julius II. takes Bologna; enters in triumph
11 Nov. 1506 following boiling points have been stated :
It becomes part of the states of the Church.
In the church of St. Petronius, remarkable for its Ether 93° Fahr. | Phosphorus
pavement, Cassini drew his meridian line (over Alcohol Oil of turpentine 312
one drawn by Father Ignatius Dante in 1575) 1653 Water Sulphur
Bologna was taken by the French, 1795 ; by the Nitric acid 187 Mercury
Austrians, 17 : again by the French, after the Sulphuric acid . 600
battle of Marengo, in 1800 ; and restored to the
1815 BOILING TO DEATH, made a capital a revolt suppressed by Austrian interference . 1831 punishment in England, by stat. 22 Hen. VIII.,
Rebellion, 1848 ; taken by Austrians 16 May, 1849 1531 (repealed in 1547). This act was occasioned The Austrians evacuate Bologna: and cardinal Ferby seventeen persons having been poisoned by retti departs: the citizens rise and form a proRichard Roose, otherwise Coke, the bishop of
· 12 June, 1859 Rochester's cook, two of whom died. Margaret
Which decrees that all public acts shall be headed
“ Under the reign of king Victor Emmanuel," &c. Davy, a young woman, suffered in the same manner
1 Oct. for a similar crime, 28 March, 1542. Stow.
He enters Bologna as sovereign
2 May, 1860 BOIS-LE-DUC, Dutch Brabant, the site of a BOMARSUND, a strong fortress on one of the battle between the British and the French repub- | Aland isles in the Baltic sea, taken by sir Charles lican army, in which the British were defeated, and Napier, commander of the Baltic expedition, aided forced to abandon their position and retreat to by the French military contingent under general Schyndel, 14 Sept. 1794. This place was captured Baraguay d'Hilliers, 15 Aug. 1854. The governor by the French, 10 Oct. following; it surrendered Bodisco, and the garrison, about 2000 men, became to the Prussian army, under Bulow, in Jan. 1814. prisoners. The fortifications were destroyed. BOKHARA, the ancient Sogdiana, after suc
BOMBAY, the most westerly and smallest of cessively forming part of the empires of Persia, of Alexander, and Bactriana, was conquered by the
our Indian presidencies, was visited by the PortuTurks in the 6th century, by the Chinese in the 7th, guese in 1509;, and acquired by them in 1530. It and by the Arabs about 705. After various changes money) to Charles II. as the marriage portion of the
was given (with Tangier in Africa, and 300,000l. in of masters it was subdued by the Uzbek Tartars, its
infantá Catherine of Portugal, 1662. In 1668, it present possessors, in 1505. The British envoys,
was granted to the East India company, who had colonel Stoddart and captain Conolly, were murdered at Bokhara, the capital, by the 'khan, about long desired it, in free and common socage," as June, 1843. In the war with Russia, begun in 1866, of 101. Confirmed by William III. 1689. The the emir's army was defeated several times in May,
two principal castes at Bombay are the Parsees Peace was made 11 July, 1867
The Russians were again victors, 25 May, 1868, and (descendants of the ancient Persian fire-worshipoccupied Samarcand the next day. Further con
pers) and the Borahs (sprung from early converts
to Islamism). They are both remarkable for comquests were made by the Russians, and Samarcand
mercial activity. was secured by treaty, Nov. 1868.
First British factory established at Ahmednuggur 1612 BOLIVIA, a republic in South America, for- Mr. Gyfford, deputy-governor, 100 soldiers, and merly part of Peru, population in 1858, 1,987,352. other English, perish through the climate,
Oct. 1675--Feb. 1676 The insurrection of the ill-used Indians, headed by Captain Keigwin usurps the government 1681-84 Tupac Amaru Andres, took place bere. 1780-2 Bombay made chief over the company's settlements 1687
The whole island, except the fort, seized and held
and marshal, 1850 ; died 24 June, 1860 ; his children for a time by the mogul's admiral.
1600 Bombay becomes a distinct presidency
1708 Mathilde, born 27 May, 1820; married to prince Additions to the Bombay territory :- Bancot river,
A. Demidoff in 1841. 1756 ; island of Salsette
1775 Napoleon, born 9 Sept. 1822 ; married princess CloBishopric established
tilde of Savoy, 30 Jan. 1859: issue, Victor, born Lord Elphinstone governor,
1853 18 July, 1862 ; Louis, born 16 July, 1864; Marie, Population of the presidency, 12,034,483
born 20 Dec. 1866. The benevolent sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, a Parsee (who erected several hospitals, &c.), dies 15 April, 1859
BOND GE, see Villanage. His son sir Cursetjee, visits England
1860 Sir G. R. Clerk, governor
BONES. The art of softening bones was disRioting against the income tax suppressed Nov. and covered about 1688, and they were used in the
Dec. cutlery manufacture, &c., immediately afterwards. Sir Henry Bartle Frere, governor
March, 1862 The declared value of the bones of cattle and of Greatly increased prosperity through the cotton other animals, and of fish (exclusive of whale-fins)
trade, leads to immense speculation. Nov. 1864 imported into the United Kingdom from Russia, Reported failure of Mr. Byramjee Cama, a Parsee, for 3,300,000l. ; other failures, and great depres
Prussia, Holland, Denmark, &c., amounted to sion ; the projected international exhibition in 363,6131. in 1851, and to 628,5351. in 1870. Bone1867 abandoned
May, 1865 dust has been extensively employed in manure Recovering from commercial crisis.
since the publication of Liebig's researches in 1840. Mr. (after sir) W. R. Seymour Fitzgerald, appointed governor, Nov. 1866; arrived
28 Feb. 1867 BONE-SETTING cannot be said to have Held a durbar of native princes, at Poona. 6 Oct. 1868
been practised scientifically until 1620. Bell. Grand reception of the duke of Edinburgh, 11 March, 1870 Sir Philip Wodehouse, governor
April, 1872 BONHOMMES, hermits of simple and gentle
lives, appeared in France about 1257; in England BOMBS (iron shells filled with gunpowder), about 1283. The prior of the order was called said to have been invented at Venlo, in 1995, and le bon homme, by Louis VI. used by the Turks at the siege of Rhodes in 1522.
BONN, a town on the Rhine (the Roman Bonna), They came into general use in 1634, having been
was in the electorate of Cologne. It has been previously used only by the Dutch and Spaniards. frequently besieged, and was assigned to Prussia Bomb-vessels were invented in France in 1681, in 1814. "The academy founded by the elector in Voltaire. The shrapnel shell (invented by colonel Henry Shrapnel, who died in 1842) is a bomb filled 1777, made a university, 1784 ; abolished by Napowith balls, and a lighted fuse to make it explode Albert, our late prince consort, was entered as a
leon; re-established and enlarged 1818. Here before it reaches the enemy.
student, May, 1837. BONA, Algeria ; an early station of the French BOOK (Anglo-Saxon, boc; German, buch). African company, till 1789. It was taken by the Books were originally made of boards, or the inner French from the Arabs, 6 May, 1832.
bark of trees: afterwards of skins and parchment.
Papyrus, an indigenous plant, was adopted in BONAPARTE FAMILY. The name ap- Egypt. Books with leaves of vellum were invented pears at Florence and Genoa in the 13th century; by Attalus, king of Pergamus, about 198 B.C., at in the 15th a branch settled in Corsica.
which time books were in volumes or rolls. The
MSS. in Herculaneum consist of papyrus, rolled CHARLES BONAPARTE, born 29 March, 1746, died 24 Feb., and charred and matted together by the fire, and
1785. He married in 1767, Letitia Ramolina (born are about nine inches long, and one, two, or three 24 Aug., 1750, died Feb. 1836); ISSUE,
inches in diameter, each being a separate treatise. 1. Josepu, born 7 Jan. 1768, made king of Two Sicilies, The most ancient books are the Pentateuch of Moses
1805 ; of Naples alone, 1806 ; of Spain, 1808 ; resides in United States, 1815; comes to England, 1832 ;
and the poems of Homer and Hesiod. The first settles in Italy, 1841 ; dies at Florence, 28 July, 1844.
PRINTED Books (see Printing) were printed on one 2. NAPOLEON 1., emperor, born 15 Aug. 1769 (see side only, the leaves being pasted back to back.
France.) 3. Lucien, prince of Canino, born 1775: at first aided
Books of astronomy and geometry were ordered to his brother Napoleon, but opposed his progress towards
be destroyed in England as being infected with universal monarchy. He was taken by the English on
magic, 6 Edw. VI. Stowe.
1552 his way to America, and resided in England till 1814.
Anne's act, 1709, relating to the price of books, He died at Viterbo, 30 June, 1840. His son Charles
2032 volumes of new works, and 773 of new editions, (born 1803, died 1857) was an eminent naturalist. 4. Louis, born 2 Sept. 1778; made king of Holland, 1806;
were published in London in died 15 July, 1846. By his marriage with Hortense
3359 new works, and 1159 new editions, exclusive of Beauharnais (danghter of the empress Josephine), in
908 pamphlets, were published in
1852 1802, he had three sons : 1. Napoleon Louis (born 1803,
3553 volumes were published in
1864 died 1807); 2. Louis Napoleon (born 1804, died 1831);
in Great Britain, 4575 books and pamphlets were and
published in 1870 ; 3547 new books, and 1288 new 3. CHARLES-LOUIS-NAPOLEON, born 20 April, 1808
editions, in 1871 ; 3419 new books, aud 1100 new educated under the care of his mother at Aremberg,
1872 Switzerland, and at Thun, under general Dufour ;
In Paris, 6445 volumes were published in
and took part in the Carbonari insurrection in the Papal
7350 in 1851. See Bibliography. States in March, 1831
PRICES OF Books, -Jerome (who died 420) states that Attempted a revolt at Strasbourg, 30 Oct. 1836.
he had ruined himself by buying a copy of the works of Sent to America, 13 Nov. 1836.
Origen. A large estate was given by Alfred for a book Repairs to London, 14 Oct, 1838.
on cosmography, about 872. The Roman de la Rose was Lands at Boulogne with fifty followers, 6 Aug. 1840. sold for about 30l. ; and a homily was exchanged for Condemned to imprisonment for life, 6 Oct. 1840. 200 sheep and tive quarters of wheat. Books frequently Escapes from Ham, 25 May, 1846.
fetched double or treble their weight in gold. They sold Arrives at Boulogne, 2 March, 1843.
at prices varying from 10. to 40l. each in 1400. A copy Elected deputy, 8 June ; and takes his seat, 27 Aug. ; of Machlin's Bible, ornamented by Mr. Tomkins, was
see France 1848-71: died at Chiselhurst, 9 Jan. 1873. declared worth 500 guineas. Butler. A yet more superb 5. JEROME, born 15 Nov. 1784 : king of Westphalia, copy was insured in a London office for zoooli See
1 Dec. 1807-1814; made governor of the Invalides, 1848; Boccacio's Decamerone.
Book-BINDING. - The book of St. Cuthbert, a very boot” was used in Scotland upon the covenanters
early ornamental book, is supposed to have been about 1666. bound about
650 A Latin Psalter was bound in oak boards, gthi BORAX (Boron), known to the ancients, used
century. | in soldering, brazing, and casting gold and other AMS. copy of the four Evangelists, the book on which our kings from Henry I. to Elward VI.
metals, was called chrysocolla. Borax is produced took their coronation oath, was bound in oaken
naturally in the mountains of Thibet, and was baris, nearly an inch thick
brought to Europe from India about 1713. HomVelvet was the covering in the 14th century : and berg in 1702 discovered in borax boracic acid, which
silk soon after. Vellum was introduced early in latter in 1808 was decomposed by Gay-Lussac, the 15th century; it was stamped and orna- Thénard, and H. Davy, into oxygen and the pre
mented about Leather came into use about the same time.
· 1510 viously unknown element, boron. Borax has lately The rolling machine, invented by Mr. Wm. Burr,
been found in Saxony. It is now largely manuwas substituted for the heating-hainmer, and gas
factured from the boracic acid found by Hæfer to stoves began to take the place of the charcoal
exist in the gas arising from certain lagoons in fires used to heat the gilder's finishing tools, Tuscany; and an immense fortune has been made
about 1830 by their owner M. Lardarel since 1818. Cloth binding superseded the common boards generally about
1831 Caoutchoue or India-rubber backs to account-books
BORDEAUX (W. France), the Roman Bur
digalla, in Aquitania, was taken by the Goths, 412; and large volumes were introduced in .
1841 by Clovis, 508. It was gained by Henry II. on his BOOK-HAWKING SOCIETIES (alreadly in Scotland) marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, 1151. Edward
begun in England in 1851 by archdeacon Wigram the Black Prince brought John, king of France, (afterwards bishop of Rochester). The hawkers vend moral and religious books in a similar man
captive to this city after the battle of Poictiers, ner to the French colporteurs.
19 Sept. 1356, and here held his court eleven
years : his son, our Richard II., was born at BorBOOK-KEEPING. The system by double-deaux, 1366. After several changes Bordeaux finally entry, called originally Italian book-keeping, was surrendered to Charles VII. of France, 14 Oct. 1453. taken from the course of algebra published by The fine equestrian statue of Louis XV. was erected Burgo, in the 15th century, at Venice. John in 1743. Bordeaux was entered by the victorious Gowghe, a printer, published a treatise “on the British army after the battle of Orthes, fought kepyng of the famouse reconynge Debitor 27. Feb. 1814.-13 vessels were burnt and others and Creditor,” London, 1543. This is our earliest injured in the port, throngh the ignition and work on book-keeping. James Peele published his explosion of petroleum spirit, 28 Sept. 1869. The Book-keeping in 1569. John Mellis published "A French delegate government and the represenBriefe Instruction and Manner how to Keepe Bookes tatives of foreign powers removed here from Tours, of Accompts," in 1588. Improved systems were 11 Dec. 1870. M. Gambetta remained for a time published by Benjamin Booth in 1789 and by Edw. with the army of the Loire. By the “pacte de Thos. Jones in 1821 and 1831.
Bordeaux," between the different parties of the BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER, see
national assembly, M. Thiers became chief of the Common Prayer.
executive power, 17 Feb. 1871. The French Asso
ciation for the Advancement of Science held its BOOK POST, see Post.
first meeting here, 5 Sept. 1872 ; M. Quatrefages, BOOK OF SPORTS, see Sports.
president. BOOKSELLERS, at first migratory like
BORNEO, an island in the Indian Ocean, the hawkers, became known as stationarii, from their largest in the world except Australia, was dispractice of having booths or stalls at the corners of covered by the Portuguese about 1518. streets and in markets. They were long subject to The Dutch trade here in 1604 ; establish factories, vexatious restrictions, from which they were freed 1609 ; abandon them, 1623 ; re-establish them 1776 in 1758.
Sarawak settled by sir James Brooke ; appointed rajah.
1841 BOOKSELLERS ASSOCIATION. The The pirates of Borneo chastised by the British in chief publishers in London formed themselves into 1813, and by captain Keppel in
March, 1843 an association and fixed the amount of discount to By a treaty with the sultan, through the instrube allowed, 29 Dec. 1829, and for some years re
mentality of sir J. Brooke, the island of Labooan, stricted the retail booksellers from selling copies of
or Labuan (N. W. of Borneo), and its dependen
cies, incorporated with the British empire, and works under the full publishing price. A dispute
formally taken possession of in presence of the arose as to the right of the latter to dispose of books Bornean chiefs
2 Dec. 1846 which had become theirs by purchase, at such less James Brooke, rajah of Sarawak (1846), governor of profit as they might deem sutticiently remunerative.
Labuan and consul-general of Borneo, visits
England and receives many honours . Oct. 1847 The dispute was referred to lord chief justice Camp
1849 bell, at Stratheden House, 14 April, 1852. His
He destroys many of the Bornean pirates
Labuan made a bishopric; the bishop (F. J. Maclordship gave judgment against the association,
Dougall) consecrated at Calcutta, the first English which led to its dissolution, 19 May following. bishop consecrated out of England
18 Oct. 1855
The Chinese in Sarawak rise in insurrection and BOOTHIA FELIX, a largo peninsula, N.W.
massacre a number of Europeans ; sir J. Brooke point of America, diseovered by sir John Ross in
escapes hy swimming across a creek; he speedily 1830, and named after air Felix Booth, who had returns with a force of Malays, &c., and chaspresented him with 20,000l. to fit out his polar
tises the insurgents, of whoin 2000 are killed, expedition. Sir Felix died at Brighton in Feb. 1850.
17, 18 Feb. 1857
He comes to England to seek help from the governBOOTS, said to have been the invention of the ment, without success Carians, were mentioned by Homer, 907 B.C., and
His health being broken up, an appeal for a subfrequently by the Roman historians. " A variety of
scription for him made forms, m.y be seen in Fairholt's Costume in Eng: Deputation of merchants waits on the earl of Derby
recommending the purchase of Sarawak, which land." Ån instrument of torture termed “the is declined
438 407 348
Sir J. Brooke returns to Borneo
20 Nov. 1860 from the Cimmeri, who dwelt on its borders, about Returned to England ; died
11 June, 1868 The rajah of Sarawak, with an expedition of Malays
and Dyaks, defeats and punishes a marauding The Archenactidæ from Mitylene rule. B.C. 502-480 decapitating tribe of Dyaks
June, 1870 They are dispossessed by Spartacus I.
Seleucus, 431 ; Satyrus I. BORNOU, an extensive kingdom in central Leucon, 393 : Spartacus II., 353 ; Parysades Africa, explored by Denham and Clapperton (sent Eumelus, aiming to dethrone his brother Satyout by the British government), in 1822. The Prytanis, his next brother, ascends the throne, but population is estimated by Denham at 5,000,000, is murdered by Eumelus by Barth at 9,000,000.
Eumelus puts to death all his relations,
and is killed.
304 BORODINO, a Russian village on the river The Scythians conquer Bosporus
285 Moskwa, near which a sanguinary battle was fought, Mithridates VI., of Pontus, conquers Bosporus . 7 Sept. 1812, between the French under Napoleon, He poisons himself; and the Romans make his son, and the Russians under Kutusoff; 240,000 men
Pharnaces, king being engaged. Each party claimed the victory; Battle of Zela, gained by Julius Casar over Phar
naces II. (Cæsar writes home, Veni, vidi, vici, “I but the Russians retreated, leaving Moscow, which
came, I saw, I conquered ")
47 the French entered, 14 Sept. ; see Moscow.
Asander usurps the crown
Czesar makes Mithridates of Pergamus king BORON, see Borax.
Polemon conquers Bosporus, and favoured by BOROUGH or BURGII, anciently a company
Polemon killed by barbarians of the Palus Mæotis of ten families living together, now such towns as send members to parliament, since the election of Polemon II. reigns, 33 : Mithridates II. reigns burgesses in the reign of Henry III. 1265. Charters Mithridates conducted a prisoner to Rume, by were granted to towns by Henry I. 1132; which order of Claudius ; Cotys I. king
49 were remodelled by Charles II. in 1682-4, but re A list of kings given by some writers ends with stored in 1688. 22 new English boroughs were
344 created in 1553. Burgesses were first admitted into
BOSTON, Lincolnshire; a trading town, made the Scottish parliament by Robert Bruce, 1326; and into the Irish, 1365. Acts to amend the Represen, lofty tower, was erected about 1309.
a staple for wool, 1357; St. Botolph's church with a tation of the People in England and Wales passed 7 June, 1832, and 15 Aug. 1867; and the Act for BOSTON, Massachusetts, United States, built the Regulation of Municipal Corporations, 9 Sept. about 1627. Here originated that resistance to the 1835; see Constituency.
British authorities which led to American indeBOROUGH-BRIDGE (W. R. of York). Here pendence. The act of parliament laying duties on Edward II. defeated the earls of Hereford and Lan- tea, papers, colours, &c. (passed June, 1767) so
excited the indignation of the citizens of Boston, caster, 16 March, 1322. Lancaster was mounted on a lean horse, led to an ominence near Pontefract,
that they destroyed several hundreds of chests of and beheaded.
tea, Dec. 1773
Boston seaport shut by the English parliament, BOROUGH-ENGLISH, an ancient tenure until restitution should be made to the East by which the younger son inherits, is mentioned as India Company for the tea lost
25 March, 1774 occurring 834: It was abolished' in Scotland by The town besieged by the Americans, and Malcolm III. in 1062.
houses destroyed Battle of Bunker's Hill, between the royalists and
the BOSCOBEL, near Donington, Shropshire.
independent troops; latter defeated,
17 June, 1775 Charles II. (after his defeat at Worcester, 3 Sept.
The city evacuated by the king's troops April, 1776 1651), disguised in the clothes of the Pendrills, Industrial exhibition opened
Oct. 1856 remained from 4 to 6 Sept. at White Ladies; on Great peace jubilee ; concert of about 10,371 voices 7 and 8 Sept. he lay at Boscobel house, near which and 1094 instruments, with anvils, bells, &c., exists an oak, said to be the scion of the Royal Oak begun
15 June, 1869 in which the king was part of the time hidden with
International peace jubilee'; chorns about 20,000
orchestra, 1000; with military bands and other col. Careless. Sharpe. The “Boscobel Tracts"
performers of different nations, including the were first published in 1660. In 1861 Mr. F. Man
British grenadier guards' band; a day allotted to ning published “ Views," illustrating these tracts.
17 June-4 July, 1872
Tremendous fire ; great loss of life and property; BOSNIA, in European Turkey formerly part of about 80 acres of buildings burnt; 959 houses Pannonia, was governed by chiefs till a brother-in (125 dwellings); 35 persons killed . 9, 10, 11 Nov. law of Louis king of Hungary was made king, 1376. He was defeated by the Turks in 1389, and became BOSWORTH FIELD, Leicestershire, the their vassal. Bosnia was incorporated with Turkey
site of the thirteenth and last battle between the in 1463. Many efforts have been made by the houses of York and Lancaster, 22 Aug, 1485, when Bosnians to recover their independence. The last Richard III. was defeated by the earl of Richmond, rebellion, begun in 1849, was quelled by Omar afterwards Henry VII., and slain, through the Pasha in 1851.
desertion of sir Wm. Stanley. It is said that
Henry was crowned on the spot with the crown of BOSPHORUS, THRACIAN (now Channel of Richard found in a hawthorn bush near the field. Constantinople). Darius Hystaspes threw a bridge of boats over this strait when about to invade BOTANY. Aristotle is considered the founder Greece, 493 B.C. See Constantinople.
of the science (about 347 B.c.). Historia Plantarum
of Theophrastus was written about 320 B.C. Authors BOSPORUS (improperly BOSPHORUS), now on botany became numerous at the close of the 15th called Circassia, near the Bosphorus Cimmerius, century.' Fuchsius, Bock, Bauhin, Cæsalpinus, and the straits of Kerteh or Yenikalé. The history of others, wrote between 1535 and 1600. The system the kingdom is involved in obscurity, though it and arrangement of the great Linnæus was made continued for 350 years. It was named 'Cimmerian, known about 1735; and Jussieu's system, founded