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STEERING AND SAILING RULES-Continued.
REPEALING CLAUSE AND DATE OF EFFECT.
International rules of 1885 in force on the high Rules of the United States for harbors, rivers, and seas and coast wise waters. inland waters.
SEC. 2. That all laws and parts of laws inconsistent with the foregoing Revised International Rules and Regulations for the navigation of all public and private vessels of the United States upon the high seas, and in all coast waters of the United States, are hereby repealed, except as to the navigation of such vessels within the harbors, lakes, and inland waters of the United States; and that this act shall take effect and be in force from and after the first day of September, anno Domini, eighteen hundred and eighty-four. Approved March 3, 1885.
SEC 3. Collectors or other chief officers of the customs shall require all sail vessels to be furnished with proper signal lights. Every such vessel that shall be navigated without complying with 'the Statutes of the United States, or the regula tions that may be lawfully made thereunder, shall be liable to a penalty of two hundred dollars, onehalf to go to the informer; for which sum the vessel so navigated shall be liable, and may be seized and proceeded against by way of libel in any district court of the United States having jurisdic
tion of the offense.
SEC. 4413. Every pilot, engineer, mate or master of any steam vessel who neglects or wilfully refuses to observe the regulations established in pursuance of the preceeding (R. S. 4412] section, shall be liable to a penalty of fifty dollars, and for all damages sustained by any passenger, in his person or baggage, by such neglect or refusal.
SEC. 3. That the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States shall have authority to estab lish all necessary regulations, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, required to carry the same into effect.
The Board of Supervising Inspectors of the United States shall have authority to establish such regulations to be observed by all steam vessels in passing each other, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as they shall from time to time deem necessary; and all regu lations adopted by the said Board of Supervising Inspectors under the authority of this Act, when approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, shall have the force of law. Two printed copies of any such regulations for passing, signed by them, shall be furnished to each steam vessel, and shall at all times be kept posted up in conspicuous places on board.
SEC. 2. That a fine, not exceeding two hundred dollars, may be imposed for the violation of any of the provisions of this Act. The vessel shall be liable for the said penalty, and may be seized and proceeded against, by way of libel, in the district court of the United States for any dis trict within which such vessel may be found.
LINES DIVIDING THE HIGH SEAS FROM RIVERS, HARBORS, AND INLAND WATERS WHERE THE INLAND RULES OF THE ROAD ARE TO BE FOLLOWED.
To Collectors of Customs and others :
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Washington, D. C., July 13, 1895.
Pursuant to section 2 of the act approved February 19, 1895, the following lines dividing the high seas from rivers, harbors, and inland waters are hereby designated and defined:
(BEARINGS ARE MAGNETIC.)
Portland, Me., Harbor.—From Cape Elizabeth (E.) Light ENE. to Halfway Rock Light, thence E., southerly, to Seguin Light.
Philadelphia Harbor and Delaware Bay.-From Cape Henlopen Light NE. by E. to South Shoal Whistling Buoy, thence NNE. † E. to Cape May Light. Charleston Harbor.-From Charleston Light Vessel NW. W. (toward Sullivans Island Range Rear Light) to the North Jetty, and from Charleston Light Vessel SW. W. to Charleston Whistling Buoy, thence SW. W. to Charleston Main Channel Entrance Bell Buoy, thence W. to Folly Island.
Savannah Harbor and Calibogue Sound.-From Tybee Whistling Buoy NNW. through North Slue Channel Outer Buoy to Braddock Point, Hilton Head Island, and from Tybee Whistling Buoy W. to Tybee Island.
St. Simon Sound (Brunswick Harbor) and St. Andrew Sound.-From hotel on Beach of St. Simon Island mile NE. by E. E. from St. Simon Light-House, SE. E. to St. Simon Sea Buoy, thence S. 3 E. to St. Andrews Sound Sea Buoy, thence W. to the Shore of Little Cumberland Island.
Pensacola Harbor. -From Pensacola Entrance Whistling Buoy N. W., a tangent to the E. side of Fort Pickens, to the shore of Santa Rosa Island, and from the Whistling Buoy NW. W. to Fort McRee Range Front Light.
Mobile Harbor and Bay.—From Mobile Bay Outer or Deep Sea Whistling Buoy (or its watch buoy in summer) NE. by N. to the shore of Mobile Point, and from the Whistling Buoy NW. by W. to the shore of Dauphin Island.
New Orleans Harbor and the Delta of the Mississippi.-From South Pass East Jetty Light N. by E. E. to Pass a Loutre Light, thence N. to Errol Island and from South Pass East Jetty Light W. S. to Southwest Pass Light, thence N. to shore.
San Diego Harbor.-From Point Loma Light S. 3 E. to San Diego Bay Outside Bar Whistling Buoy, thence NNE. E. to tower of Coronado Hotel.
Kittery Harbor, Maine, and Portsmouth Harbor, New Hampshire.—From Kitts Rocks Bell Buoy NNE. E. through Horn Island to the Maine shore, and from Kitts Rocks Bell Buoy NW. by W. W. through Frosts Point Ledge Buoy to Frosts Point, N. H.
Newburyport, Ipswich, and Annisquam Harbors, Massachusetts.-From Salisbury Beach Range Rear Light a line SE. S. to Newburyport Bar Whistling Buoy, thence a line S. by E. & E. (toward Annisquam Light) to a point of intersection with a line drawn from Ipswich Light E. S. to Halibut Point, thence, from the point of intersection, along the latter line E. 3 to Halibut Point.
Columbia River Entrance.-From Cape Disappointment Light SE. E. to Point Adams Light.
Department Circular No. 95 is appended.
S. WIKE, Acting Secretary.
INLAND WATERS OF NEW YORK HARBOR, CHESAPEAKE BAY, GALVESTON HARBOR, BOSTON HARBOR, AND SAN FRANCISCO HARBOR WHERE THE INLAND RULES OF THE ROAD ARE TO BE FOLLOWED.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Washington, D. C., May 10, 1895.
To Collectors of Customs and others: Pursuant to section 2 of the act approved February 19, 1895, the following lines dividing the high seas from rivers, harbors, and inland waters are hereby designated and defined:
New York Harbor.-From Navesink (southerly) Light-House NE. E., easterly, to Scotland Light Vessel, thence NNE. E. through Gedney Channel Whistling Buoy (proposed position) to Rockaway Point Life-Saving Station.
Baltimore Harbor and Chesapeake Bay.-From Cape Henry Light-House NE. by E. § E., easterly, to Outer Entrance Whistling Buoy, thence N. by E. E. to Cape Charles Light-House.
Galveston Harbor.-From Galveston Bar Whistling Bouy N. by W. W. through the beacon marking the outer extremity of the N. jetty, and SW. by W. W., westerly, through North Breaker Beacon.
Boston Harbor.-From Point Allerton NNE. E., easterly, through Point Allerton Beacon to Northeast Grave Whistling Buoy, thence NNE. E. to Outer Breaker (Great Pig Rocks) Bell Buoy, thence NE. by E. E. to Halfway Rock Beacon, thence NE. by E. E. to Eastern Point Light-House.
San Francisco Harbor.—From Point Bonita Light-House SE. † S. to Point Lobos. J. G. CARLISLE, Secretary.
THE WORLD'S TONNAGE, MOTIVE POWER, AND MATERIALS OF CON
The following tables give the latest information available as to the tonnage of the merchant marine of the world.
Table 1 is a compilation from the annual report of the British Board of Trade, dated June 17, 1895. The figures are based on the official figures of the various governments. It shows the tonnage of principal nations and tonnage added annually for a term of years.
Tables 2 and 3 are from the annual volumes of the two great classification societies, Lloyd's and the Bureau Veritas. The minimum tonnage recognized by these societies is considerably higher than the legal basis of official returns of any government. Neither society takes cognizance in its statistics of steam vessels of less than 100 tons. Gross and net tonnage are stated by both, and comparison of Table 1 with Table 2 or 3 will indicate where net tonnage is employed in Table 1. Both societies consider only net tonnage in the case of sailing vessels, Lloyd's taking cognizance of those over 100 net tons, the Bureau Veritas of those over 50 tons. The gross tonnage of sailing vessels generally is only about 5 per cent greater than their net tonnage. The promptitude of these large private companies brings their figures down to a much more recent date than Government reports. The current volume of the Répertoire Général is dated September, 1895, the current volume of Lloyd's Register, July 1, 1895.
Table 4 is compiled from Lloyd's Register for the past five years and shows the motive power and chief materials of construction of the world's merchant navies as recorded by Lloyd's. The increase of gross tonnage with the decrease in number of vessels gives a rough measure of the increasing size of vessels, due largely to the increasing use of steel. The steady increase in number of steam vessels and marked increase in their tonnage, with a decrease in both number and tonnage of sailing vessels, will be noted. The wooden steam tonnage is virtually stationary; wooden sailing tonnage shows a decrease from 6,693,738 net tons in 1890 to 5,173,766 tons in 1895. Iron construction, both for steam and sail, shows a steady decrease, while steel sailing vessels are now three times in excess of those of 1890, and steam tonnage of steel has increased from about 4,000,000 tons in 1890 to over 9,000,000 tons in 1895. Like figures for Great Britain, the British colonies, France, and Germany have been compiled from Lloyd's.
Table 5 gives the total tonnage tables of the Bureau Veritas for a period of years, with a table of potential tonnage, obtained by the Bureau of Navigation by multiplying the steam net tonnage by 4 and adding to it the sailing tonnage, the ratio of 4 to 1 being the present measure of the efficiency of steam tonnage compared with sail tonnage. In an estimate of the carrying power of the world's ocean tonnage it is necessary to take cognizance of the factor of efficiency. The carrying power of the world's merchant marine may thus be said to have increased, as from 398 units of carrying power in 1886 to 495 units in 1894. The figures of both Lloyd's and the Bureau Veritas as to American tonnage are inadequate statements, taking slight or no cognizance of our Great Lake fleets.
Table 6 shows the vessels of over 100 tons built during each of the past five years, according to returns received by Lloyd's.
Table 7 contains the essential parts of Lloyd's annual summary of shipbuilding returns for the calendar year 1894.
Table 8 gives Lloyd's report of the world's construction in progress at the close of our fiscal year, June 30, 1895.
Table 9 gives Lloyd's report of vessels lost or broken up during 1894 with the causes of loss.
NAT 95, PT 1————16
1. THE WORLD'S MERCHANT MARINE.
Statement of the world's tonnage (from return on progress of British shipping for 1895), based on official returns.
[There is no uniformity in these returns, some nations resting statistics on gross, some on net tonnage. The minimum tonnage recognized by the laws of each nation is stated.]