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the part of the allies, had now called by the armies of Europe, they have down this mortifying castigation. But been disbanded by the united council the best exposition of the merits of of the sovereigns, and no reason can this question was made by the con- exist why the powers of Europe should queror of Waterloo.
do injustice to their own subjects, with The Duke of Wellington heard a view to conciliate them again. Nei. , with contempt the absurd and affected ther has it ever appeared to me to be clamour which was propagated against necessary, that the allied sovereigns him, until it was roundly alleged, that, should omit this opportunity to do in being accessary to the removal of justice, and to gratify their own subthese specimens of art, he had broken jects, in order to gratify the people of the convention of Paris, which he had France. The feeling of the people of
himself ratified. He then France, upon this subject, must be Sept. 28. made public, in a letter one of national vanity only. It must
to Lord Castlereagh, the be a desire to retain these specimens grounds of his proceeding, and shewed of the arts, not because Paris is the plainly, that, so far from
this property fittest depository for them,ếas, upon being guaranteed to France by the ca.
that subject, artists, connoisseurs, and pitulation, a proposed article to that all who have written upon it, agree effect had been refused as inadmissible. that the whole ought to be removed to The very proposal of such a stipula- their ancient seat, but because they tion argued the sense entertained by were obtained by military successes, of the French commissioners of the title which they are the trophies. of the allies to remove these pictures ; “ The same feelings which induce and the rejection of that article, not the people of France to wish to retain only reserved entire, but greatly ad- the pictures and statues of other navanced their claim. The rest of the tions, would naturally induce other letter: is in the same style of manly nations to wish, now that success is on good sense, which characterizes all the their side, that the property should be duke's compositions.
returned to their rightful owners, and “ The conduct of the allies, regard. the allied sovereigns must feel a desire ing the Museum, at the period of the to gratify them. treaty of Paris, might be fairly attri. . It is, besides, on many acccounts, buted to their desire to conciliate the desirable, as well for their own bappi. French army, and to consolidate the ness, as for that of the world, that the reconciliation with Europe, which the people of France, if they do not alarmy at that period manifested a dis- ready feel that Europe is too strong position to effect. But the circum. for them, should be made sensible of stances are now entirely different. The it ; and that whatever may be the ex. army disappointed the reasonable ex. tent, at any time, of their momentary pectations of the world, and seized and partial success against any one, or the earliest opportunity of rebelling any number of individual powers in against their sovereign, and of giving Europe, the day of retribution must their services to the common enemy of mankind, with a view to the revival of “ Not only, then, would it, in my the disastrous period which had pass- opinion, be unjust in the sovereigas to ed, and of the scenes of plunder which gratify the people of France on this
the world had made such gigantic ef- subject, at the expense of their own - forts to get rid of.
people, but the sacrifice they would .." This army having been defeated make would be impolitic, as it would
deprive them of the opportunity of gi- “ In conformity to this principle, ving the people of France a great mo. France cedes to the allies-Landau, ral lesson."
Saarlouis, Phillippeville, and MarienDuring these agitating transactions, burg, with those circles of territory the articles of peace, so necessary for which are more fully laid down in the all parties, were at length finally ad- plan of treaty proposed by the four justed. They were of course dictated allied cabinets, on the 29th Septema by the conquerors, with such modifi. ber. cations as the king could obtain by 66 Versoy, with the necessary
terri. his personal influence with the allied tory, shall be ceded to the Helvetic sovereigns, or through the mediation Confederation, in order to bring the of the Emperor Alexander, to whom Canton of Geneva in direct commuthe Duke of Richelieu had access as a nication with Switzerland, and the valued servant.
French line of customs shall be there The allies assumed, for the basis of established in the manner most convethe treaty, the principles consecrated nient for the administrative system of by those of Chaumont and Vienna, both countries. but they were qualified by stipula. “ The works of Huningen shali tions tending to humble the pride of be demolished. The French governFrance, to deprive her, at least for some ment binds itself to erect no others years, of the power of unsettling her within a distance of three leagues from own government, or disturbing the Basle. peace of Europe, and to indemnify “ France relinquishes her rights to the victors in some degree for the the principality of Monaco. enormous expenses of this wonderful
- On the other hand, the possescampaign. They were fixed by the sion of Avignon and the Venaissin, protocol of the conference of the 20
as well as of the county of Montbel. of October, in the following terms :- liard, and the possession of every other
“ 1. The boundaries of France, as territory which is included within the they were in 1790, from the North French lines, shall be anew secured to Sea to the Mediterranean, shall form France. the fundamental principles of the ter- “ 3. France pays to the allied ritorial arrangements, so that those powers, by way of indemnity for the districts and territories of former Bel- expense of their last armaments, the gium, of Germany and Savoy, which, sum of 700 millions of francs. A by the treaty of Paris of 1814, were special commission shall fix the mode, annexed to Old France, shall remain the periods, and the securities for this separated therefrom.
payment. “ 2. Where this principle is de- 4 4. A military line of the follow. parted from, the boundaries of 1790 ing 17 fortresses, viz. Conde, Valenshall be modified and better arranged, ciennes, Bouchain, Cambray, Le Ques. according to mutual conventions and noy, Maubeuge, Landrecies, Aves. interests, both in regard to civilju. nes, kocroy, Givet, Mezieres, Se. risdiction, so as to cut off inclosed dan, Montmedy, Thionville, Longwy, districts, and assign on both sides a Buche, and the Bridge head of Fort more regular territory, and also in re- Louis, shall be occupied by an army gard to military jurisdiction, so as to of 150,000 men, which the allied strengthen certain weak parts of the powers shall appoint. This army, boundaries of the counterminous coun- which shall be placed under the comtries,
mand of a general chosen by these
powers, shall be wholly maintained at them, according to the number of the the expense of France.
troops supplied by each power. -4 A special commission shall fix The sum of fifty millions, fixed for all that relates to its maintenance, the pay and other necessaries of the which shall be regulated in the best army of one hundred and fifty thou. way for supplying all the wants of sand men, which were to continue to the army, and at the same time the occupy a part of France, was to be least burthensome to the country.
divided as follows “The longest duration of this mi. litary.occupation is fixed at five years. Russia, ................. 7,142,857f. 16c. However, on the expiration of three Austria...................10,714,285 71 years, after the allied sovereigns England, ............... 10,714,285 71 have weighed the situation of things Prussia,
10,714,285 71 and of mutual interests, as well as The other Allies, ... 10,714,285 71 the advances which may have been made in the restoration of order and The Duke of Wellington, well de tranquillity in France, they will come serving that high trust, was named to a common decision with the King generalissimo of the allied army; and of France, whether the above term of respecting the nature and extent of years may be shortened.",
the powers entrusted to him, the alThe payment of 700 millions of lied sovereigns declared, that “ alfrancs, or about twenty-nine millions though chiefly guided with respect sterling, was supposed to be an as- to this measure, by motives tending sessment sufficient for the 'punishment to the safety and welfare of their • of France, though inadequate to re- subjects, and being very far from hapay the expenses of the allies, and ving any intention of employing their particularly of Britain. A sum of one troops in aid of the police, or of the hundred and eighty-seven millions was internal administration of France, or set apart by the sovereigns, as the in any manner that might compromise expense of fortifying the north-east- or interfere with the free exercise of ern frontier of the Netherlands and the royal authority in this country, the Germany. Twelve millions and a allied sovereigns have, however, in conhalf were to be divided among the sideration of the high interest which states of Spain, Portugal, Denmark, they take in supporting the power of and Switzerland, which, though pre- legitimate sovereigos, promised to his vented by the rapidity of events from most Christian Majesty to support bringing up their troops, were never- him with their arms against every retheless parties to the European league. volutionary convulsion which might For the corresponding reason, fifty
mil. tend to overthrow by force, the order lions were to beequally divided between of things at present established, and Britain and Prussia, upon whom the to menace, also, again the general tranburthen of the war had chiefly fallen. quillity of Europe. They do not, The balance of the contributions be- however, dissemble, that in the varieing about five hundred millions, was ty of forms under which the revolathus divided :-Prussia, Austria, Rus- tionary spirit might again manifest itsia, and England, each were to re- self in France, doubts might arise as ceive one fifth ; and the other states, to the nature of the case which might who had acceded to the treaty of the call for the intervention of a foreign 25th March, were to receive the re- force; and feeling the difficulty of maining fifth, to be divided amongst framing any instructions precisely ap
plicable to each particular case, the The treaties or conventions estaallied sovereigns have thought it bet-blishing this memorable treaty were ter to leave it to the tried prudence and four in number one for establishing discretion of the Duke of Welling- peace between the allied powers, and ton, to decide when and how far it France; the second relating to the acmay be advisable to employ the troops cupation of the fortresses, and the subunder his orders, always supposing sistence of the troops by whom they that he would not in any case so de- are to be occupied; the third fixed terminé, without having concerted his the amount of contributions, and ameasures with the King of France, or ranged the made of raising and pay. without giving information as soon as ing them.; the fourth, ascertained the possible to the allied sovereigns, of time and mode of paying the foreign the motives which may have induced creditors of France. Their effect on him to come to such a determina- the public mind in France will be best tion."
conceived by the tone of the King's Such being the regulations respect- speech to the Chamber of Deputies, ing the requisitions made upon France, when he opened their session on the it only remains to notice the effect of 17th of October; the other articles of the treaty. Lan- “ Gentlemen-When last year I asdau, Saarlouis, Philippeville, and Ma- sembled the two Chambers for the rienburg, are all places of strength first time, I congratulated myself upon and importance, particularly the three having by an honourable treaty resto, first, which lie conveniently to forward red peace to France. ..She began to any plans which France might enter- taste the fruits of it; all the sources tain of foreign aggression. To the of public prosperity were re-opening, siiteen fortresses which were destined when a criminal enterprise, seconded for temporary occupation, the allies by the most inconceivable defection, had proposed to add Lisle and Stras- arrested their course. The evils which bourg, but desisted in consequence this ephemeral usurpation caused our of the earnest remonstrances of the country deeply afflicted me; yet I French monarch. There is, indeed, ought to declare here, that had it little doubt that, but for the good been possible to affect none but my, will the allied sovereigns bore to Louis self, I should have blessed Providence. XVIII. the necessary delicacy to. The marks of affection which my wards him, the desire to give him re- people have given me in the most crispect in the eyes of his subjects, and tical moments, have, consoled me in the wish to establish a solid peace, my personal sufferings; but those of France would have been compelled to my subjects, of my children, weigh restore the conquests of Louis XIV., upon my heart, and in order to put a as well as those of the Republic and period to this state of affairs, more Buonaparte. As it was, the campaign burthensome even than the war itself, of 1815_and the battle of Waterloo I have concluded with the powers, lost to France the temporary posses which, after having destroyed the sion of her whole defended frontier usurper, still occupy a great part of from Cambray to Alsace, and put the our territory, a convention which re. keys of the kingdom in possession of gulates our present and future relaforeigners, enabling the army of oc. tions with them. It will be commu. cupation, on any occasion of necessity, nicated to you without any restriction, to march straight to Paris without op as soon as it has received its last forposition,
mality. You well know, gentlemen,
and all France will know, the profound must be considered as matter of re-
civil list, into the have rendered desperate all that nume. treasury of the state, a considerable rous and powerful class, who had in portion of my revenue. My family various degrees countenanced oryieldwere no sooner informed of my reso- ed to the usurpation of Buonaparte, lution than they offered me a propor. would have missed the opportunity of tionate gift. I have ordered similar subjecting the army to his authority, diminutions in the salaries and expen- and in fact given the signal for a civil ces of all my servants, without excep. war of the most rancorous description. tion. I shall always be ready to share On the other hand, by going entirely sacrifices which imperious circumstan- and without reserve
into the measures ces impose upon my people. All the recommended by Fouché, the king statements shall be submitted to you, would have lost entirely the confiand you will know the importance of dence and attachment of the royalists, the economy which I have command- his only adherents who acted upon ed in the departments of my ministers, principle, and thrown himself into the and in all parts of the government ; arms of the very party, nay the very happy if these measures shall suffice men, to whose love of revolution for the burthens of the state. In all Louis XVI. had sacrificed branch after events, I rely upon the devotedness of branch of the royal authority, until the nation, and the zeal of the two they were enabled to approach to and Chambers."
hew down the defenceless trunk. It The deep sentiment of affliction and seems to have been the policy of Louis humiliation thus sounded from the to steer a middle course betwixt these throne, was echoed back from all parts extremes, to adopt the counsels of the of France. Yet such is the temper of royalists in so far as might strike a the people, that the sensation was ma- wholesome terror into those who trade nifestly less acute upon the occupation in revolutions, but to qualifyit by showof their country by strangers, and the ing a slowness and reluctance to use heavy mulct to which they must look severity, and giving the guilty time and forward for years as a burthen ou their opportunity of making their escape agriculture and commerce, than the from menaced punishment. Unhape pangs they had felt at the removal of pily (for the king's choice was a choice the Corinthian Horses or the Venus de of difficulties,) this course had its peMedicis.
culiar inconveniences, of which it was Before quitting this important sub- not the least, that the royal measures ject, the reader may expect from us seemed irregular and uncertain, and, some general remarks upon the line Auctuating between severity and leni. of policy adopted by Louis XVIII. ty, kept remembrance of the national after his restoration.
guilt and apprehension of its punishThe circumstances in which the ment too long afloat in the minds of King of France was placed, were of the people. Even in the ordinary admi. such unexampled difficulty, that any nistration of justice, our horror of the erroneous measures which he adopted crime fades away, and our sympathy