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Balmon P. Ohase,

Wm. P. Fessenden, Maine, Appointed July, 1864. Secretary of Treasury.
Hugh McCulloch,
Indiana, Appointed March,

Bimon Cameron,

Edwin M. Stanton, Pennsylvania, Appointed Jan. 1862.

Secretary of War.
Gideon Welles,

Secretary of Navy.
Caleb B. Smith,

Becreta y of Interior
John P. Usher,

Indiana, Appointed Jan, 1883.
Montgomery Blair, Maryland,

Wm. Dennison,


Appointed Sept. 1864.
Edward Bates,

James Speed,
Kentucky, Appointed Sept. 1864.

Galusha A. Grow, Pennsylvania,

1861-2 Speaker H. Repa.
Salmon P. Chase,


Appointed Dec. 1864. Chief Justice,
ABRAHAM LINCOLN, of Illinois, inaugurated March 4, 1863, President,
ANDREW JOHNson, of Tennessee, Vice-President,

[President Lincoln was assassinated at Washington by Wilkes Booth, April 14, 1863.)
ANDREW JOHNson became President, April 15, 1865.
LAFAYETTE 8. Foster, of Connecticut, elected President of the Senate.

[Succeeded by Ben. F. WADF., of Ohio, 1867.)
Wm. H. Seward,
New York, (continued in office),

Secretary of State.
Hugh McCulloch,


Secretary of Treasury.
Edwin M. Stanton, Pennsylvania, do

Secretary of War.
Gideon Welles,
Connecticut, do

Secretary of Navy.
John P. Usher,


do James Harlan,


Appointed March, 1865. Secretary of Interior,
Orville H. Browning,

Illinois, Appointed June, 1866.
W. Dennison,

Ohio, (continued in office),
Alex, W. Randall, Wisconsin,


Appciated June, 1866.
James Speed,

Kentucky, (continued in office),
Henry Stan bery,

Appointed June, 1866.

Schuyler Colfax,

1863-'65-67. Speaker H. of Repe.
The salary of each member of the Cabinet was raised in 1853 from $6,000 to $8,000.
(Palmerston dies, Oct. 1865.)


Derby, First Lord, &c.; D' Israeli,
Gladstone Chancellor of the Ex-

Chancellor of Exchequer;l Lord
chequer; Lord Cranworth, Lord

Stanley, Sec. for Foreign Affairs,
Chancellor ; Earl Granville, &c.


June 19, 1866. Dec. 1865. ADMIRALTY. There is no separate court of admiralty in the U. S. By Statute of 1789, the District Courts have “cognizance of all civil causes of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction.” They are also Prize Courts and hear all cases of tặespass and civil injuries on the Sea Capital crimes committed at sea are tried by the U. S. Circuit Courts.

ADVERTISING. The rate of charge of American Dailies is from 5 to 20 cents per line; of weekly papers, up to $2.00. A few monthly and quarterly periodicals charge $2.50 per line. The price of one page for advertisements in Harper's Magazine is $250. In 1867, the advertising receipts of the N. Y. Tribune were above $359,000. By act of July, 1861, advertisements in American papers are taxed 3 per cent. on gross receipts. Papers of less than 2,000 copies circulation are exempt. The duty on advertising in England was abolished in 1853.

AGRICULTURE. Agriculture is the most important material interest of the United States. It is estimated that seven-eighths of the population are engaged in agricultural pursuits or in occupations immediately dependent thereon. In 1860 the number of acres in cultivation was 163,000,000, valued at 6,600 million dollars. In the same year the value of agricultural implements was $247,000,000. Statistics of 1860-1862-1865:


Bushels of Wheat,..........


Bushels of Oats..............


Bushels of Rye.....


Tone of Hay....


Pounds of Wool......

Bales of Cottoli.....

Bushels of Corn............. 800,000,000


600,000,000 In the Statistics of 1862 and 1865 the States in rebellion are not included. In 1862 the shipment of wheat from the U. S. to Great Britain alone amounted to 29,700,000 bushels. Total exports of grain 1863 were 77,300,000 bushels. The cereals of the Northern States in 1865 amounted to 1,228 million bushels, valued at $1,047,000,000. The Southern cotton crop for 1866–7 is estimated at 2,000,000 bales. “Department of Agriculture ” established May 15, 1862, at Washington, D. C. Its object, to diffuse information on subjects connected with agriculture among the people of the U. S.

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AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS. The earliest attempt at one was the Abbé Rosier at Chambord, France, 1775. In 1844 Mr. Colman found but nine agricultural schools in existence "worth notice.” Seven years after (1851), Professor Hitchcock enumerated no less than 352 in Europe, of which five were in England, sixty-three in Ireland, and seventy-five in France. Among the first in the United States is that at Ovid, Seneca county, New York, founded in 1856. The Westchester N. Y. Farm School, founded 1856, was the first private institution exclusively agricultural. There are now (1860) agricultural professorships in Virginia, Georgia, &c., as well as in Yale College. An annual course of thirty lectures on agriculture established in 1850, at New Haven, by Professor Norton. Michigan Agricultural College, established by the legislature in 1850. By act of July 2, 1862, Congress inade pro vision for “donating public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide Colleges for the benefit of agriculture and mechanic arts." Up to Sept. 1863, 15 Staies had taken advantage of the act, and many colleges introduced Agricu ture among the branches of their scientific course. Agricultural college at Amherst, Mass., in process of construction (1867).

ALABAMA. One of the United States; most of its territory was included in the original patent of Georgia. It was made a part of the Mississippi territory in 1817; admitted into the Union as a State in 1820. Population in 1810 was less than 10,000); in 1816, 29,683 ; in 1820, 127,901; in 1830, 308,997; in 1840, 590,756, including 253,532 slaves. Exports of the State in 1840 amounted to $12,854,694 ; imports to $574,651. The governor in his message, November, 1851, recommends a discriminating tax on all articles from those States that continue slave agitation. Population in 1850: white, 426,515 ; free colored, 2,250. Total free, 428,765 ; slaves, 342,894. In 1855 : white, 464,456 ; free colored, 2,466 ; slaves, 374,784. Population, 1860: wbite, 520,444 ; slaves, 435,473. The slaves have increased more rapidly than the whites. Ordinance passed “seceding" from the United States January 7,1861. During the war the State was untouched by the national army until March, 1865, when Gen. Wilson with 17,000 cavalry penetrated its most productive region. In June, 1865, L. E. Parsons was appointed Provisional Governor. The State sent 120,000 men to the war, and lost 35,000. Estimated loss in wealth, $500,000,000. Present debt (1865) is $3,400,000.

ALBANY, N. Y. Population in 1850, 60,700; in 1860, 62,367; in 1865, 62,613. It became the capital of the State in 1807. The most important article of commerce is lumber; in 1863, $7,000,000 worth was received there. Its Law Library, the best in the country, contains 70,000 volumes.

ALE AND BEER, U. S. By act of Congress, July 13, 1862, a tax of $1.00 is levied on every barrel of ale and beer manufactured and sold.

ALIENS, U. S. In 1850 there were 2,210,800 in the United States. In 1866, 233,408 arrived. Of these, 106,000 came from Germany; 68,000 from Ireland; 36,000 from England. Aliens now pay income tax. (Act of Congress, July, 1666.) See Emigration.

ALMANACS (American):Franklin's " Poor Richard's Almanac" (Phil. 1739), The "National Almanac" (valuable and compre. was the first of any note in the U. S.

hensive), publi-hed by Childs of Pbila., appeared « The American Nautical Almanac" was establish- only 1863 ind 1864.

ed in 1849 and superintended by Capt. Davis, At the present time (1867) no general almanac of

U.S.N. It has few equals in scientific accuricy. any special value is published in the U. S. The “ American Almanac" of Boston was discon. The Family Christiat Almanac” of the Tract tinued in 1857 [?] after being published 29 years. Society has a wide circulation,

AMBASSADORS. The U. S. has never sent any person of the rank of ambassador in the diplomatic sense, but is represented by ministers plenipotentiary. (Keit). In 1867 the U. S. had her ministers at the courts of Austria, Brazil, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Mexico, Peru, Prussia, Russia, Spain. To the smaller states, “ministers resident” are sent, 22 in all Number of consuls from U. S. to foreign countries in 1862, 272. Some of these are known as agents simply. 10 are stationed in England and 10 in France. The highest salaries are given to the consuls at London and Liverpool, $7,500 each. Number of foreign consuls in U. 8. in 1863, 356.

AMERICA. See United States,

AMERICAN FLAG. Previous to 1776, the colors used by the American army exhibited a gnake with thirteen rattles, in a crimson ground interlaced with white. On the 14th June, 1777, Congress resolved, " that the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes alterDately red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, wbite, on a blue field—representing a new constellation.”


ANÆSTHETICS. Substances to alleviate pain :Carbonic acid gas, recommended by Dr. Hick

and a controversy on the respective cla mos man...

1828 was continued for several years. Chloroform or its use discovered nearly at the Bill introduced in 1.8. Senate to purchase Dr. same time by Dr. G. Guthrie, Sac keita Har

Morton's patent for $100,000... .. Aug. 28, 1851 bor, N. Y., M. Soubeiran in France, and Prof. Claim of the widow of Dr. Horace Wells, of Liebig in Germany..

1831 Hartford, Conn., that he originated the use Use of ether to relieve pain first effected at the of other previous to Morton. (These various instance of Dr. W. T. G, Morton at the Mass.

claims fully discussed in Morton's statements Hospital...

...Oct, 16, 1846 of Evidence, 1853, and Litlell's Living Age, Patent for it secured by Dr. Morton...

vols, 16 & 17.)

Nov, 12, 1846 Vee of chloroform first proposed for same por. Dr. Chr. T. Jackson appeared as claimant of

pose as sulphuric ether, by Dr. Simpson of the discovery,......

.........Jan. 2, 1847 Edinburgh.......... In 1863 Dr. Colton (dentist) of N. Y. used nitrous oxide. No ill effects followed in the 8,000 cases he had up to 1865. (See this subject in Appleton's Cyclopædia, 1864.)

ANIMALS, SOCIETY TO PREVENT CRUELTY TO. A society, chartered by the State of N. Y. in 1866, chiefly through the exertions of Mr. Henry Bergh, who became its Secretary in 1866. Its object is to prevent cruel treatment to animals, by bringing offenders to trial. Laws prohibiting eruelty to beasts and also "game fighting," passed April, 1866. The Pennsylvania Legislature incorporated a similar society in the Spring of 1867.

ANNUITIES. An annuity is a sum of money allowed to a person yearly during his life. Governments borrow money and grant annuities in return. The U. S. gives pensions as annuities for services rendered. They are granted generally by incorporated companies. In Louisiana the “contract of annuity is that by which one party delivers to another a sum of money, and agrees not to reclaim it so long as the receiver pays the rent agreed upon." (Civil Code.)

ANTIETAM, BATTLE OF. Antietam Creek is in the western part of Maryland, and flows into the Potomac. Great battle fought there (Sept. 17, 1862) between the army of the Union, under Gen. McClellan and the Confederate army under Gen. Lee. It was commenced on the rigt.t by Gen. Hooker; next to him in line were Sumper, Mansfield, Porter, Burnside, in all 87,000 men. Opposed to these were the corps of Longstreet, Jackso, and the Hills70,000 strong. The fight raged fiercely all day. Burnside at length carried a bridge across the creck and stormed the heights beyond. At night the advantage was with the national army, and Lee retreated across the Potomac. Entire loss in McClellan's army 12,469; in Lee's, 13,533, with 13 guns, 39 colors and 6,000 prisoners, captured by the Union army. General Mansfield, U. S. A., was killed. Two Confederate generals killed, 8 wounded; 1 Union general killed, 6 wounded.

APPEALS. In the U. S. nearly all courts can hear appeals from those next inferior. The highest courts of the States are courts of appeal only. The Supreme Court of the U. S. sits on appeal from Circuit and Territorial Courts, and also from the highest State Courts, whenever the question turns upon the validity of a treaty or law or authority of the U. S. (Staiute of 1789.)

APPLES. The Romans knew of 22 varieties of apples, according to Pliny. Ray reckons 78 kinds in his day, in England (1688). In the U. S. 200 varieties exist. Apple-trees of finest quality last 80 years. Some reach the age of 200 years. Throughout the U. S. the following appear to be the favorites: For summer apples, the Early Harvest, Sweet Bough and Red Astrachrın ; for autumn, the Fall Pippin, Porter and Gravenstein ; for winter, the Baldwin and 'Rhode Island Greening. The demand for the fruit is greatly in advance of the supply, and in London the American apple commands fabulous prices. In 1860, the yield of orchard fruit amounted to $19,000,000, the greater part of which was derived from the apple product. In 1865, the orchards in the State of New York yielded 16,275,505 bushels of apples.

APFRENTICES. In the U. S. apprenticeship is not so common as in England. The American apprentice rarely pays a fee to the master. In some Eastern Siates, farmers take them to learn husbandry, clothe them, and, when they leave, present them with a sum of money. Whole nunber in the U. S. in 1860 was about 55,000. There is a Library in Mechanics Hall, N. Y. City, containing 16,000 volumes, for youthful apprentices. For laws respecting thein, see Kent's Commentaries. Number of apprentices in N. Y. State, in 1865, 1,361.

AQUEDUCT. The greatest of modern or perhaps of any time is the Croton aqueduct, which supplies the City of New York with water from Croton lake, 40 miles distant. It was commenced 1837 ; its completion was publicly celebrated in 1842 ; its cost was $10,375,000. It is carried across the Harlem river on a bridge 100 feet bigh. Chief engineer John B.

Jervis ; contractor for the bridge, Geo. Law. The aqueduct which supplies Boston from lake Cochituate, 231 miles, was commenced in 1846 ; its completion celebrated Oct. 26, 1848; cost $5,370,818. That which supplies the city of Brooklyn, L. I., was finished 1858; engineer J. P. Kirkwood; cost $640,828. Jersey City, N. J., is supplied by an aqueduct s miles long from the Passaic river at Belleville ; W. S. Whitwell, chief engineer. It was completed in 1856 and cost $640,000. Washington, D. C., is furnished with water from the Potomac by an aqueduct 15 miles long, commenced in the administration of Pres. Pierce. The water was first admitted into it Dec. 5, 1863, at which time the cost amounted to $2,900,000 ; Capt. M. C. Meigs (U. S. A.) chief engineer. This aqueduct discharges 67,596,400 gallons in 24 hours, or nearly 3 times as much as the Croton aqueduct.

AQUARIUM, or AQUAVIVARIUM. Mr. C. E. Hammett, Jr., of Newport, R. I., published 1859 his observations and experiments with Aquaria, which were very remarkable. Aquaria have been introduced into several public museums in the U. S., and they are also largely cultivated in private houses. In 1860 there was but one regular establishment for their manufacture in the U. S. Annual value of products $5,500.

ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS. See Northwest Passage, and Franklin's Expeditions. Lieut Hartstein with the Arctic and Release leaves Brooklyn May 31, 1855, and finds Dr. Kane at Lieveley, Greenland, Sept. 13, 1855; and returns to New York with him Oct. 1855. Steamer Fox, Capt. McClintock, sails from Aberdeen (sent by Lady Franklin), in search of remains of Franklin's Expedition, July 10, 1857. Capt. McClintock returns, bringing relics and remains of Franklin's Expedition, and ascertaining his fate, 1859. Mr. Ć. F. Hall sailed from New London, Conn., in ship George Henry, May 29, 1860. Returned Sept. 13, 1862. He went again with strong hopes of finding some of Franklin's men. Discovered the fate of four who died from cold and starvation, June, 1864. Dr. Hayes sailed from Boston in schooner United States, and returned in fifteen months. Valuable surveys and experiments made by him, July 10, 1860, Capt. Parker Snow sailed from England in schooner Intrepid, in search of Franklin's companions, June, 1861. Expedition from Sweden blockaded by ice and unable to accomplish its objects, May 9, 1861.

ARIZONA, known as the Gadsden purchase, a territory of 30,000 square miles, purchased from Mexico by the U. S. for $10,000,000 in 1855. It had in 1856 about 5,000 inhabitants, chiefly Mexicans. By act of Congress, Feb. 24, 1863, the territory was organized and part of New Mexico added to it, the whole containing 131,000 square miles. The capital is Prescott. The first Governor appointed, in 1863, was R. C. McCormick. Population in 1866, white, about 8,000.

ARKANSAS, one of the United States, was a part of the Louisiana purchase. It was made a separate territory in 1819, and was admitted into the Union in 1836. Population in 1830, 30,388 ; in 1840, 97,574, including 19,935 slaves. Population in 1860, 435,450, of whom 111,115 were slaves. The State“ seceded ” from the Union May 6th, 1861. Being unaided during the war by the Confederate Government, she manufactured her own war material. At the close of the rebellion I. Murphy was appointed provisional Governor (1865). Many of the plantations have been divided up for sale, and land can be bought at $1 to $5.00 per acre (1866). ARMY OF THE U. S. INCLUDING VOLUNTEERS. The following list is official: Date.

Regulare, Volunteers. Present for duty. Aggregate.
July, 1861...


Jan. 1, 1862...


Jan. 1, 1863............


Jan. 1, 1864.....


Jan. 1, 1865....


May 1, 1865.....


1,034,064 From May 1, 1865, to Jan. 20, 1866, 918,722 volunteers were mustered out of service. Entire number of colored troops during the war, 178,976. By act of Congress, July, 1866, the regular army comprises 45 regiments of ic fantry, 10 of cavalry, 5 of artillery : 2 regiments of cavalry and 4 of infantry are colored troops. Total number of regulars in service, Jan. 1867, 54,300. The higher officers are: 1 General, 1 Lieut.-General, 5 Major-Generals, and 10 Brigadier-Generals. During 1861-5 the Pay Department disbursed $1,029 239,000 among the troops. The loss of life in the Northern armies during the war was 280,751, of whom 6,221 officers and 90,886 men were killed or died of wounds, and 2,321 officers and 182,329 men died of disease. See Enlistment.

The following is a list of ordnance and ordnance stores furnished to the army during 1861-65: Cannon-number.....

7,892 Artillery carriages-number.





Artillery projectiles (shot and shell)-number..............

6,335,695 Grape and canister shot-pounds.......

6,539,999 Field artillery ammunition-rounds..

2,862,177 Small-arms, muskets, rities, carbines, and pistols......

3,477,655 Swords, cabres, and lances...

544,475 Infantry accoutrements-complete sets...

2,146,175 Cavalry accoutrements-complete sets....

216,371 Horse equipments-sets.....

539,544 Two-horse artillery harness-wets........

28,164 Horse blankets--number..

732.526 Cartridges for small arms-number.

1.022,176,474 Percussion caps for small arms-number....

1,220,555 435 Cannon-primers.........

10,281,305 Fuses for shell......

4.226,377 Gunpowder-pounds......

26,440,054 Nitre---pounds....

6,395,152 Lead in pigs and bullets-pounds.......

90,416,295 This only includes what was consumed in the army, and not what was used by the navy.

ARTISTS' FUND SOCIETY, N. Y. In Nov. 1865, sixty pictures were contributed to it by members, which sold for $7,500. The object of this society is to assist indigent and disabled artists. Established in 1859, and has an exhibition and sale, annually.

ARTS, FINE. The progress in the fine arts has been very marked in the U. S. since 1850. The National Academy of Design founded 1828 ; its new building, the first in the United States wholly designed for such a purpose, was completed and dedicated 1864. The amount annually expended in the U. S. for works of art, has increased ten-fold in as many years. In 1864, 30 collections of pictures in N. Y. sold for $500,000. The Academy of Fine Arts, in Philadelphia, had on exhibition in April, 1865, a collection of over 800 pictures and sculptures. À bandsome building for the Yale School of Fine Arts was completed at New Haven in 1866, the gift of Mr. Street. The first exhibition was opened with much distinction July, 1867. Over 70 paintings and 13 sculptures were sent to the Paris Exposition (1867) by the American Committee ; see Paintings ; Tuckerman's Book of the Artists.

ART-UNION. For distributing works of art by lot. The first was in Germany, founded at Munich in 1823; followed by those of Berlin (1828), Dresden, Leipzic, Bremen, Dusseldorf, Frankfort, Vienna, etc. “ Roman Catholic Art-Unions" were started in 1851. London Art Union founded 1837; its receipts increased in nineteen years from $500 to $90,000 per ann. The first in the U. S., the American Art-Union (originally the Apollo Association) was founded at N. Y. in 1839. It continued thirteen years, purchasing and distributing works to the amount of $453,853. It was closed in 1851 as being forbidden by the State laws against lotteries,

ASSAY OFFICE, U. S. The one established in N. Y. City, in 1854, assaved more than $180,000,000, of gold, in the seven years prior to 1866. The following table, taken from the official returns to the Treasury Department, shows the collections on bullion and the amount of bullion assayed in each State and Territory of the United States during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1866: States and Territories, Collections on Bullion,

Bullion Axxnyed.


$49,020,250 Colorado.....


219,860 Idaho....


535,105 Missouri..

$15 Nevada...


15,272,246 New Jersey

13,688 New York.


7,295.803 Oregon...


4,785,221 Pennsylvani.....


Rhode Island...




$81,389,541 The foregoing compilation does not include the coinage of the United States Mint, at San Francisco, which amounted to $20,000,000.

ASTRONOMY. Astronomy received little attention in the U. S. prior to 1843. At that time, a large comet suddenly appearing, public interest in the science was awakened. Profs. Bond and Pierce, of Cambridge, Mass., Capt Davis, U. S. N., Prof. Hubbard, Naval Academy, Profs. Olmistead and Loomis, of Yale, Prof. O. M. Mitchell, óf Cincinnati, and Miss Mitchell, of Nantucket, have contributed largely to the science. Asteroid No. 66 was first seen from Harvard College, April 10, 1861. Others have since been discovered. The La Lande Astronoinical Prize, of $00 francs. was awarded by the French Academy of Science to



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