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Blonde, and Modeste, being an chored abreast, and as close to the batteries as possible, opened their fire, which was very faintly returned. To the right (eastward), the troops disembarked on a fine sandy bay, without accident, and headed by Sir Hugh Gough, pushed on over the heights, and joined the troops between the heights, and soon came upon a causeway leading to the city. The Chinese fled before them in every direction. As soon as possible after the troops moved from the east, the naval brigade landed at the west end of the heights, and joined the troops between the heights and the suburbs. Up to this time, every defence had been carried with scarcely any loss; but about 300 Tartar troops, finding escape impossible, took possession of a joss-house on the spot, and defended themselves desperately, until the house fell in upon them, when about forty were taken alive, the rest perished. On this occa sion we sustained some loss. The Chinese forces amounted to 10,000 men, one-third of whom were Tartar troops.

The following extract, giving an account of Chapoo, is taken from a letter written by an eye wit


"Chapoo presents many features in common with all Chinese towns -narrow, irregular, and filthy streets, stagnant canals, and crowded buildings; stores of grain, and immense temples used as public buildings as well as places of worship. There are two distinct towns; the one occupied by the original inhabitants of the country, the other by their conquerors. Both cover a space about four miles in circuit. A wall divides the Tartars and the Chinese: both

live as a separate people, obeying the same laws, however, wearing the same dress, and speaking the same language; but in their social habits differing from each other in a remarkable degree. The Tartar town is laid out like a compact encampment, and consists of lines of huts running parallel, and only interrupted by the canals.

Each hut has its own

little compound, and on the bam boo fence separating it from its neighbour, a rich vine is almost in every instance grown; the remaining space is occupied by the family well, a peach tree, and a few beautiful evergreens, tastefully arranged, and twisted into grotesque shapes. The interior is less pleasing: in general only a cold, damp, clay floor, a few chairs and tables, chests, and rude bedsteads; and in the richness of their dress alone do they rival the Chinese."

Sir H. Pottinger rejoined the squadron before it sailed from Chapoo; and its subsequent operations are concisely detailed by him in a " circular," dated on board the steam frigate Queen, in the Yang-tze-Kiang River (off Woosung), 24th June:

"After the necessary delay in destroying the batteries, magazines, foundries, barracks, and other public buildings, as well as the ordnance, arms, and ammunition, captured at Chapoo, the troops were re-embarked, and the expedition finally quitted that port on the 23rd of May, and arrived on the 29th off the Rugged Islands, where it remained until the 13th of June, on which day it crossed the bar, which had been previously surveyed and buoyed off, into the Yang-tze-Kiang River, to the point where the river is joined by the Woosung. At this point

the Chinese authorities had erected immense lines of works, to defend the entrances of both rivers; and seem to have been so confident of their ability to repel us, that they permitted a very close reconnoissance to be made in two of the small steamers, by their Excellen cies the Naval and Military Commanders-in-Chief on the 14th inst.; and even cheered and encouraged the boats which were sent in the same night to lay down buoys to guide the ships of war to their allotted positions of attack. At daylight on the morning of the 16th, the squadron weighed anchor, and proceeded to take up their respective stations, which was scarcely done when the batteries opened, and the cannonade on both sides was extremely heavy and unceasing for about two hours; that of the Chinese then began to slacken, and the seamen and marines were landed at once, under the fire from the ships, and drove the enemy out of the batteries, before the troops could be disembarked and formed for advancing: 253 guns (fortytwo of them brass) were taken in the batteries, most of them of heavy calibre, and upwards of eleven feet long. The whole were mounted on pivot carriages, of new and efficient construction, and it was likewise observed, that they were fitted with bamboo sights. The casualties in the Naval arm of the expedition amounted to two killed and twenty-five wounded, but the land forces had not a man touched. It appears almost miraculous, that the casualties should not have been much greater, considering how well the Chinese served their guns. The Blonde frigate had fourteen shot in her hull, the Sesostris steamer eleven, and all the ships engaged more or

less. The loss on the part of the enemy is supposed to have been about eighty killed, and a proportionate number wounded.

"On the 17th of June, some of the lighter vessels of the squadron advanced up the Woosung River, and found a battery deserted, mountfifty-five guns, of which seventeen were brass. On the 19th, two more batteries, close to the city of Shang-hai, opened their guns on the advanced division of the light squadron, but on receiving a couple of broadsides, the Chinese fled, and the batteries, which contained forty-eight guns (seventeen of them brass), were instantly occupied, and the troops took possession of the city, where the public buildings were destroyed, and the extensive government granaries given to the people.

"His Excellency the Admiral proceeded up the River Woosung with two of the small iron steamers on the 20th inst., about fifty miles beyond the city of Shanghai, and in this reconnoissance two additional field-works, each mounting four heavy guns, were taken and destroyed, bringing the total of ordnance captured in these operations up to the astonishing number of 364, of which seventy-six are of brass, and chiefly large, handsome guns; many of the brass guns have devices, showing that they have been cast lately; several of them have Chinese characters, signifying the tamer and subduer of the barbarians;' and one particularly large one is dignified by the title of the barbarian.'

"The Chinese high officers and troops are supposed to have fled in the direction of the cities of Soochow, Wang-chow-foo, and Nankin. The same high authorities

have made another indirect attempt to retard active operations, by an avowed wish to treat; and have also given a satisfactory proof of their anxiety to conciliate, by the release of sixteen of Her Majesty's subjects (Europeans and natives of India), who had been kidnapped; but as the overtures were not grounded on the only basis on which they can be listened to, they were met by an intimation to that effect."

The Chinese were greatly alarmed at the entrance of the English squadron into the waters of their great river Yang-tze-and Elepoo, a commissioner, who had previously been employed to negotiate with our forces at Chusan, but who had subsequently been degraded at Pekin for being too peaceably inclined towards the " barbarians," was again entrusted with office and sent to the scene of action. Some communications took place between him and the officers in command of the expedition with a view of terminating the quarrel without further hostilities, but these produced no results, and it was determined to advance and take possession of the great cities of Chin-Keang-foo and Nankin.

The fleet sailed from the anchorage off Woosung on the 6th of July. It consisted of upwards of seventy sail. The first opposition occurred on the 14th at Suyshan, where a few shots were fired from some batteries, which were however destroyed by our guns. On the 20th the whole fleet reached the city of Chin-keang-foo.

"This city, with its walls in excellent repair, stands within little more than half a mile from the river; the northern and the eastern faces upon a range of steep hills; the west and southern faces VOL. LXXXIV.

on low ground, with the Imperial Canal serving in some measure as a wet ditch to these faces. To the westward, the suburb through which the canal passes extends to the river, and terminates under a precipitous hill, opposite to which, and within 1,000 yards, is the island of Kin-shan, a mere rock, rising abruptly from the water; a small seven-storied pagoda crowns the summit, and a few temples and imperial pavilions, partly in ruins, and only occupied by Chinese priests, run round its base and up its sides, interspersed with trees. The island is not more than a few hundred yards in circumference, and by no means calculated for a military position, being commanded completely by the hill on the right bank of the river."

Early on the morning of the 21st the whole of the troops were landed in three brigades-the first under Major-General Lord Saltoun, the second under MajorGeneral Bartley, and the third under Major-General Schoedde. Lord Saltoun advanced to attack the encampments in front of the city, which he soon took and destroyed, driving the enemy before him over the hills.

Sir H. Gough having determined to take the city by assault, he directed the body of troops under the command of General Bartley to advance against the south gate, which was soon blown open by means of powder-bags, and the men rushed in, but found after traversing a long archway that this gate did not lead into the city, but only an outwork of considerable extent. Major-General Schoedde, however, had previously taken possession of the inner gateway, having escaladed the city walls at the north angle, and after clearing [T]

the whole line of the ramparts to the westward having carried the inner gateway which was obstinately defended. The Tartars fought desperately, and the heat of the sun was so overpowering, that several of our soldiers dropped down dead from its effects. This prevented the advance of the troops into the town until about 6 o'clock in the evening, when they pushed forward into the streets. Dead bodies of Tartars were found in every house that was entered, principally women and children, thrown into wells, or otherwise murdered, by their own people. A vast number of Tartars who escaped the fire of our soldiers committed suicide after destroying their families. The city was nearly deserted before we had fully taken possession of it, and all the respectable inhabitants and local authorities had fled.

Major-General Schoedde, with a body of troops under his command, was left to occupy Chinkeang-foo, or rather the heights commanding it for the city, by reason of the number of dead bodies, had become uninhabitable. The squadron proceeded on the 4th of August up the river Yang-tzekeang towards Nankin, off which city it cast anchor on the 9th of that month. Sir H. Gough, in his despatch, gives the following account of this immense city, the second in extent and population in the Chinese dominions :

"The northern angle reaches to within about 700 paces of the river, and the western face runs for some miles along the base of wooded heights rising immediately behind it, and is then continued for a great distance upon low ground, having before it a deep canal, which also extends along

the southern face, serving as a wet ditch to both. There is a very large suburb on the low ground in front of the west and south faces, and at the south-east angle is the Tartar city, which is a separate fortress, divided from the Chinese town by high walls. The eastern face extends in an irregular line for many miles, running towards the south over a spur of Chungshan, a precipitous mountain, overlooking the whole country, the base of which commands the rampart. In this face are three gates; the most northerly (the Teshing) is approachable by a paved road, running between wooded hills to within 500 paces of the walls, whence it is carried along a cultivated flat; the next (the Taiping) is within a few hundred yards of the base of Chungshan, and that to the south (the Chanyang) enters the Tartar city. There is a long line of unbroken wall between the Teshing gate and the river, hardly approachable from swamps and low paddy land, and the space between the Teshing and Taiping gates is occupied by rather an extensive lake."

Every preparation was made for attack by placing the ships in position and landing the troops, when on the 17th of August Sir H. Gough and Sir W. Parker, the military and naval commanders-inchief, received a letter from Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary, Sir H. Pottinger, desiring them to suspend hostilities, in consequence of negotiations which he was carrying on with the Chinese high officers who had been appointed by the Emperor to treat for peace.

Full powers had been given to three commissioners Ke-ying, aTurtar general, belonging to the Imperial family, Elepoo, and New

kéén, general of the two Keang provinces, to negotiate a treaty of peace; which, after various conferences, was concluded on the 26th of August. It embraced the following stipulations:-The payment by the Chinese of 21,000,000 dollars; the opening of the ports of Canton, Amoy, Foo-chow-foo, Ningpo, and Shang-hae, to British merchants, with permission to consular officers to reside there; the cession of the island of Hongkong to the British in perpetuity; correspondence to be conducted on terms of perfect equality between the officers of both governments; and the islands of Chusan and Kolangsoo to be held by the British until the money payments were made and arrangements for opening the ports were completed. The following report is a curious specimen of the mode in which the Chinese represent unfavourable events to the Emperor, studiously endeavouring to keep up the delusion that neither his dignity nor power is compromised by the concessions he is forced to make.

"Report from the Imperial Com missioner and his Colleagues on the Requisitions of Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary.

"The Imperial Commissioner and Great Minister, Keying, the acting Adjutant-General of Tsopoo, Elepoo, and the Governor of the two Keang provinces, Newktea, take the articles of peace which have been decided upon with the English nation, and send up a duly prepared report of all the circum


"1. The said barbarians begged that we should give of foreign money 21,000,000 of dollars. Ön examination it is found that the said barbarians originally wanted

to extort 30,000,000 of dollars; but Hang-e and his colleagues argued the point strongly again, and a third time; and at length the sum was fixed at 21,000,000 dollars. They said that 6,000,000 was the price of the opium, 3,000,000 for the Hong merchants debts, and 12,000,000 for the expenses of the army. The Shewer (an officer of the Emperor's bodyguard), Hang-e, and his colleagues, represented that the price of the opium had already been paid by the city of Canton, in 6,000,000 dollars; how could payment be extorted a second time? And the debts of the Hong merchants should be liquidated by themselves; how could the officers of Government be called upon to pay them? As to the necessary expenses of the army-why should China be called upon to pay them? And these matters were discussed again and again. The said barbarians exclaimed, that opium was not produced in England, but that it was all sent forth from a neighbouring country; that upwards of 20,000 chests had been destroyed, and it required no small sum to pay for them; the 6,000,000 dollars that had been paid did not amount to half of the prime cost, and therefore the deficiency must now be supplied. As to the Hong merchants' debts, the Hong merchants, originally, should have discharged them; but as they delayed the payment for a long time, the accumulation amounted to a vast sum. On that account, therefore, they requested 3,000,000 of dollars, -which, however, did not amount to more than a tenth part of the original claims: and they particularly requested that a despatch should be sent to Canton, directing that a clear inquiry should be made

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