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maining in Java, (for the Bedui, list, an average of four to a fathough descendants of the fugi- mily may be fairly taken, giving tives of Pajajaran, scarcely merit a total population for the whole notice in this respect), I proceed island exceeding eight hundred to mention some of the leading thousand souls. observations which I made in Bali. The form of government, inThe notices regarding the preva- stitutions and prevailing habits, lence of Hinduism in Bali, and of are represented to be the same the nature of the government and throughout the island ; and the country, have hitherto been so following sketch of B'liling may scanty, that on such interesting afford a just notion of the ground I may be pardoned for whole. entering into some detail, with- The government is despotic, out which it is impossible to con- and vested in the prince alone, vey a just notion of the subject. who is assisted in all affairs re
The island of Bali is at present lating to the internal administra-“* divided under seven separate au- tion of the country, by a head Perthorities, each independent of the bakal, (immediately under officers other; and, of this heptarchy, of this name, are placed the heads the state of Klongkong is acknow- of villages), and by a Radin Tuledged to be the most ancient; its mung-gung, who conducts the princes tracing their descent from details of a more general nature, the princes of Java, and having of commerce and foreign interonce possessed authority over the course. The constitution of each whole island. Among the regalia village is the same; the head or ' of this state are reported to be chief is termed Perbakal, and the still preserved the creese of Ma- assistant, Kalian Tempek. These japahit, and the celebrated gong officers are invariably selected named Bentur Kadaton; and, al- from among the people of the though the other governments do village ; the son, however, genot at the present day admit of nerally succeeding the father, if any interference on the part of competent to perform the duties. this state, they still evince a Under the head Perbakal, who marked respect and courtesy to has the designation of Perbakal that family, as the Asal Rajah Rajah, are several inferior PerBali, (the stock from which they bakals for general duties and sprung).
communications with the villages; The population is roughly esti- and under the Radin Tumun'gung mated by the number of male in- a similar establishment, bearing habitants whose teeth have been the rank and designation of hafiled, and whose services each lian Tempek. Among the heads prince can command, and who of villages are many whose famiamount to upward of 200,000. lies have formerly distinguished The female population is under- themselves in the wars of Bali, stood rather to exceed the male ; and who are termed Gusti. The and, as it may be considered that command of the military is at only the active and able bodied present vested in a chief of the men are included in the above Bramana cast, and who seems to
receive honours and respect next They have the same appearance to the prince himself.
as Bramins wherever they are Whatever, at foriner periods, met with, and the Indian features may have been the extent and in- at once distinguish them as deHuence of the Hindu religion, scended from a foreign race. The Bali is now the only island in the town and small temples which we Eastern Seas, in which that reli- occasionally observed, have the gion is still prevailing as the na- appearance of a Maharatta vil. tional and established religion of lage, and the eye is struck with the country. That high spirit of every thing strictly Hindu, formenterprize which burst the bounds ing a most unexpected contrast of the extensive confines of India, with the present style of building like the dove from the ark, rested and appearance of the country on its weary wmg for a while in Java, passing through Java and the till driven from thence it sought other Eastern Islands. a refuge in Bali, where even On inquiring into the relative amongst the rudest and most un- rank and importance of their deitutored of savages, it found an ties, they invariably described Biasylum. The four grand divisions tara Guru as the first in rank; of the Hindus are here acknow. then Bitara Braina, the spirit of ledged, and the number of Bra- fire; Bitara Wisnu, the spirit of mana (Bramins) attached to the the waters ; and lastly, Bitara small state of B'liling exceeds four Siwa, the spirit of the winds. hundred, of whom about one hun. Beside these, they describe nudred are termed Pandita.
merous subordinate deities, to Without entering into the par- whom they pay adoration; as ticular tenets of the prevailing Dewa Gide Segara, the divinity Hinduism of Bali, which can only of the great sea; Dewa Gid'e Dabe treated of with propriety and lam, the divinity who presiiles correctness after a more thorough over death ; Gid'e Bali Agung, the acquaintance with the practical great and popular deity of Bali; duties, and some knowledge of Dewa Gid'e Gunning Agung, what is contained in their sacred the great deity of the mountain ; records, it may be affirmed with- which last is the deity of most out hazard, that Hinduism, as it general worship. . exists at the present day ir. Bali, Bitara Guiu, though considered is rather to be considered as the as the highest object of worship, nation lized Hinduism of Bali, in is declared to be subordinate to, which a large portion of the na- and only the mediator with the tive institutions and customs are divinity, whom they designate by adınitted, than Hinduism as it is the expressive and appropriate understood to prevail on the con- term of Sang Yang Tung'gal, tinent of India. The Brahmins, THE GREAI AND ONLY One. however, are held in high vene- The bodies of deceased persons ration ; and, on being questioned are invariably burnt, and the as to their doctrines and to what wives and concubines of the sect they belong, they answer in- higher classes perform the savariably, they are Bramana Siwa. crifice of Satiu. "A few days previous to my landing on Bali, beauty and symmetry of their nineteen young women, the wives shape is neither restrained nor and concubines of the younger concealed. rajah, who was lately put to There are two kinds of slavery death, sacrificed themselves in existing in Bali, and sanctioned this manner.
by the laws of the comtry. The The written language of Bali fir-t is termes paniak ;" by differs but little from that of which is understood a perfect Java; but the character has a state of slavery; the second, more ancient form. The Kawi kowang,” which resembles the is the sacred language, and un- condition of the slave-debior in derstood or pretended to be un. Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. derstood by the Bramins. The “ Paniac" is synonimous with common language is a mixture “humba" among the Malays, and of the original language of the signifies a slave. The master has country and that of Java, in which comple'e possession of his perthe latter predominates.
son; and may lawfully transfer Deferring until another occa- and punish with death, according sion a more particular review of to his will and pleasure, it being the religion, institutions and ha- contrary to usage for the prince bits of this people, I will, for the to interfere. In the mode of acpresent confine myself to such ob- quiring this absolute property servations as occur on the con- there appears to be but little retemplation of the peculiar and striction. Prisoners taken in war, extraordinary character they ex- or families carried off from their hibit: for the Balinese differs count:ies, are claily sold and transwidely both in appearance and ferred; the deed of tran-fer, called character from the Javan, and in- in Bali, " padol," being authendeed froni every other inhabitant ticated by the Tumung gung. In of the Archipelago.
cases where an outrage is comThe natives of Bali are about mitied in a neighbouring state in the middle size of Asiatics ; larger alliance, application from the inand more athletic than the Javans jured party, transmitted through or Malays, and possessed of an the proper chief, will cause the air of independence different al- persins to be restorell, and the together from the appearance of perpetrators of the outrage are their more polished neighbours liable to ti e punishment of death; on the coast of Java. The wo- but, in cases where the countries men, in particular, are well pro- are not immediately in alliance, portioned. They seems to be on or when the parties carried off a perfect equality with the men. from a friendly state happen to They are not secluded from so- want friends to make application ciety; and their general inter- in their favour, no notice is taken course with strangers, even Eu- of such occurrences If a free ropeans, is frank and cheerful. man wishes to marry a female They are fairer than the women slave, he may obtain her by purin Java; and, wearing no cover. chase, provided he can agre. with ing above the waist, the natural the proprietor ; otherwise, he
may this suin,
may be admitted to marry her on debted to another, and unable to condition that he becomes a ser- pay, may make over his wife and vant with her : this second degree children to the creditor, who, in of slavery comes under the title of such case, will become rowangs ; "rowang." Persons convicted of and, on eventual payment of his offences not of the first magnitude, debt, he may demand back his are generally sold for slaves by family. the prince, or taken to serve him In marriage, the dowry estaas such. The term “rowang' is blished by custom, for all persons used to express the second, or of equal rank, is forty dollars, to modified degree of slavery. If a be paid to the parents of the man happens to be indebted, and bride ; but as it happens, in many without the means of payment cases, that the husband is unable (the debt exceeding ten dollars) to pay
he becomes inhe may be sold by the Jaxa, and debted to the parents for the the amount for which he is dis- amount, and this constitutes a posed of is appropriated to repay third branch of slavery, under the his creditor ; the surplus being term Tatung’gon. The man and divided between the prince, the wife reside in the house of the jaxa, and the creditor, as a recom- bride's father, and the man perpense for their trouble: the man forms service in attendance on sold in this manner becomes a the family, or in assisting in the rowang. This state of servitude cultivation of the land. When embraces every feature of slavery, the husband is enabled to pay the excepting that the rowang cannot dowry, he is then at liberty to be sold, put to death, nor sent out quit the father's house, and to of the country. If a rowang wishes maintain an independent estato marry, he may do so on re- blishment, under the term of ceiving his master's consent, but Orang Merdika," or freeman, the woman becomes a rowang If the new-married man, howalso. But the rowang possesses ever, behaves to the satisfaction this advantage, that he may re- of his wife's fainily, it often hapdeem himself at any time, by pay- pens, that after a certain time, ing the amount of the debt, or the father-in-law consents to rethe money may be advanced for mit the whole or part of the him ; so that his condition is that dowry, according to the circumof a debtor bound to serve his stances of the parties. creditor until the amount of his The punishments for crimes debt is discharged. In the event are death, confinement, and sellof the debt not amounting to ten ing into slavery; neither torture dollars, the party cannot be sold; to obtain confession, mutilation, but the jaxa will order the goods nor even corporal punishment are and property of the debtor to be used. Theft and robbery are disposed of, and an obligation to punished with death; and, for be given for the payment of the murder, treason, and gang robremainder vi henever his circum- bery, in aggravated cases, the stances may ailmit. A person in- punishment of death is inflicted
by breaking the limbs with a however, the conduct of the Balihatchet: this, though it assimi- nese appears unexceptionable ; lates to the manner of breaking and there is indeed a superior on the wheel, does not appear to delicacy to what might be exhave been adopted from Euro- pected, and their tenderness topeans, the practice being of an- wards early age speaks strongly cient date. The party is left to in favour of their natural dispolinger, sometimes for several sition. The parental authority is days, before death ensues. All exercised with such tenderness, executions are in public. Other that it is peculiarly striking when capital punishments are usually taken in che same view with the performed with a creese. Open
apparently rude character of the robbery by day-light is punished people. They seem to evince a by death; but stealing, by con- careless indifference to the rod of finement only: robbery by night despotism which langs over their invariably by death. All offences head ; and an air of good humour are punished in the jaxa's court, and general satisfaction prevails which consists of two jaxas and throughout. Temperate in their two kancha or registers; the per- diet, and strangers to drunkenbakal being the prosecutor. The ness, the ruling passion is gaming, sentence of the court must be from cockfighting to an inordinate confirmed by the prince: previous and unprincipled desire for conto execution, his warrant or lontar, quest.-Such is the energy of the is necessary in all cases ; in civil character, that it must find some cases, the confirmation of the powerful vent; something on prince is only required when per- which to discharge itself; and, sons are sold into slavery. A re- not being subjected to a form of gular table of fees, in civil as well government calculated to repress as criminal cases, is exhibited in their energies, they evidently court; and the amount divided feel no inclination to stand still between the members and the in the scale of civilization. As a prince. In criminal cases, when nation, they are certainly invinthe punishment is capital, the cible, as to any native power in property is confiscated, and di- the Eastern Seas. Still maintainvided in like manner ; but, in ing a high and noble indepenother punishments, the parties dence of character, they perhaps retain their property. Adultery exhibit in a concentrated spot as is punished with death to the much of human nature, checked man, and the woman beco nes a by regulation, and yet not lowered slave to the prince. Theft is the or refine:l by it, as is to be found most prevalent crime. Adultery is in any part of the universe. uncommon; perhaps not twenty casos in a year. The husband has the power, by law, to kill both parties at the moment, if he de- If we contemplate the various tects them in the fact; but not nations and tribes which inhabit otherwise.
the Southern peninsula of Indiis, In their domestic relations, and the innumerable islands com
ANCIENT POPULATION OF THE