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Specimens of Spruce, from a post 9" x 9", 18 feet long, cut in two. One half was kyanized in 1862 and the
Dug up and photographed in 1891.
spring, April 29, 1863, the specimens were planted in two rows, about four feet of their length in the ground. The posts in the front row are in a fair state of preservation, all, with the exception of No. 12, retaining their forms and strength to a degree that is favorable to the process of kyanizing, while some of them appear to be quite sound from top to bottom. The posts of the back row, which are not kyanized, are completely rotten, and, in order to keep the remnants, they have been boxed in.
The boxing of two sides of each kyanized specimen in the front row, shown in Plate II., is for the purpose of preventing the soil from coming in contact with the interior of the posts, where specimens were cut out in the spring of 1883; but there is no evidence of decay at those points at the present time.
The following is a schedule of the specimens :
The kyanized specimen of the Italian poplar, No. 12, which is now so much decayed near the surface as to lean over, was in a fair state of preservation up to 1885, a period of twenty
Plates III. and IV. are views of specimens No. 1 and 4 respectively, specified in the foregoing schedule as old-growth white pine and spruce, which have been recently dug up and photographed. It will be observed by a glance at the plates that the kyanized specimens are virtually sound in every part, while the specimens left in the natural state have become rotten and entirely worthless. The specimens shown in these plates, both kyanized and unkyanized, have been exposed to decay, with about one-half of each post buried in the ground, for upwards of twenty-eight years.
Plate V. is a view of a portion of Pawtucket Street Bridge, over the Northern Canal at Lowell, built in 1849. The timber is northern white pine, and is all kyanized. No repairs were made upon it, except the surface planking, until April, 1882, when three of the stringers were found defective from dry rot, and they were replaced with new ones. Also, the lower ends of some of the braces showed signs of decay where they came in contact with the stone masonry, and the decayed parts were then cut off and replaced with new timber. Since 1882 no repairs have been made except to the railings. The bridge is now in good order, and will wear for some years yet before any extensive repairs will be needed.
Plate VI. is a view of a portion of the picket fence, eight feet high, which was built around a reservoir of water on Lyndes Hill, in Lowell, in 1850. The posts are about six by eight inches, and were planted to a depth of about three and one-half feet in light, gravelly soil. The spruce timber of which the posts are made was purchased two years previous, in 1848, being a portion of a large lot originally purchased for another purpose. After seasoning the timber for two years, the posts were made into the form in which they were to be placed in the ground, and then kyanized. Six years ago, in 1885, an examination of the posts was made, when many of them were found to be more or less decayed below the surface of the ground, and a number of them were nearly rotted off at the ground surface, while a few of them were remarkably well preserved, and are so now. Occasion was then taken to strengthen the decayed posts by spiking pieces of kyanized two and one-half inch spruce plank, six and one-half feet long, to
Pawtucket Street Bridge over Northern Canal, Lowell, built in 1850 of Northern White Pine, kyanized. No repairs made, except renewing surface plank, until 1882, when the lower ends of some of the braces were found so much decayed as to require renewal of that part of the lower ends which rested on the masonry.
Photographed in 1891.