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ness, and no matter how wide may be his possessions, he is always broader in his manhood than in his possessions.

"That is not confined to the college. When God made this world, he stooped down to the earth and took some dust. I do not know whether it was done in a moment, but that does not make any difference. God did it, because he was not turned aside from his one great purpose. He made these bodies of ours, and he breathed into these nostrils the breath of life, and then man became; and the great end and aim of this great educational process is manhood, and the noblest work of the college, and of our educational process, as well as the noblest work of God is manhood." (Applause.)

The Toastmaster. "The Toastmaster has been requested to attempt to give a closing word. Because of the wealth of advice and good counsel that has been given you, it is extremely difficult, but he would try to suggest to you that a pessimist is a man who makes an obstacle of an opportunity, and a pessimist begins, in these days, by saying that the world is all awry, that men are not as good as they used to be, their motives and their acts are perverted. When men go into public life, so say the pessimists, they become dishonest; that men in business become dishonest; that the power of the church is on the wane, and that moral standards are lower than they have ever been before. In steps the optimist, who says: 'I will make an opportunity of an obstacle,' and he gets his inspiration from young men, from whom we get our inspiration to-night, to look out on the world with a single eye and a glad leaping heart, and, following their example, we, with years of wisdom, see that the world is better to-day than it ever has been before, because we can visualize the multiplying acts of human service and uplift, and we look into men's faces, as we go into the political arena, and we say that there never has been a time when men are so determined to render a single and a sacrificial service. We go into the business world and we see a rock of ages anchored at the bottom, which spells integrity of purpose, and dignity and purity of conduct, and we come away glad, and we look upon the great church, stripped of any partisan look, and we see, perhaps not within its four walls, the same closely specialized potential power, but we look to a city club, and we look to a hospital, and we look to a great civic settlement house, and we find that the men who initiated them, were men who got their inspiration from a church, and from God above, and we say, can we be anything other than optimists, by a process of self-introspection, determining that we will be pure and noble in thought and purpose, that we will believe in other men, and that we will see the glory of character in fine, pure, physical manhood. In closing, we will just sing one verse of America, but before we do, I am going to put the question to the young men, all those in favor of having a third annual Sons of Members' Night, say at the top of your voice, 'Aye.'" (Loud cries of aye.)

(Singing of America.)

Thursday, April 1

On this evening the members listened to an operatic concert with the following personnel: Mme. Evelyn Scotney, Soprano; Mme. Cara Sapin, Contralto; Arthur Hackett, Tenor; Howard White, Bass; Herbert Seiler, Accompanist.

Thursday, April 8

LIEUTENANT A. H. MILES, U. S. N., ON "SUBMARINES." [Boston Herald, April 9, 1915]

"Invisibility and invulnerability are what give the submarine its definite war value, and thus far there has been found no antidote for its very real terrors," said Lieutenant Alfred Hart Miles, U. S. N., of the U. S. S. Ranger, to about one thousand members asssembled in the large hall. F. T. Kurt presided.

Lieutenant Miles spoke on "The History, Development, and Operation of the Submarine," and showed more than one hundred slides during the lecture. "There are three things which may be said to furnish the problem to underwater navigation, and they are water-tightness, buoyancy and propulsion," he said. "The history of the submarine is largely one of propulsion and the heart of the boat may be said to be its main engine. Beginning with a submerged speed of five knots it has increased to more than 12, and with a surface speed of 20 knots.

"With the advent in 1901 of the gas engine, the submarine entered its modern and developed stage. The first American one was built by Bushnell; following him came Fulton, who was discouraged by the British government, and then came Holland, to whom the honor rightfully belongs of having built the first practical and efficient submarine. The subsequent invention of the self-propelling torpedo revolutionized the military use of the undersea boat, multiplying its value many times, for now torpedoes that are gently expelled by air pressure generate their own motion and attain a speed of 30 knots for 1000 yards and 28 knots for five sea miles."

Lieutenant Miles quoted figures stating that Great Britain has 82 submarines and 40 now building; United States 37 and 11 building; Russia 37 and 12 building; Italy 20 and 8 building; France 92 and 9 building, and Germany, which was slow to adopt the theory of the submarine and did not enter the field until 1907, a total of 70, which were schedule to be ready by 1917. The Germans never used gasoline, which has many disadvantages, and were the first to use oil, in the use of which they have retained supremacy. Germany has at least 16 submarines of between 900 and 1200 tons, with a surface speed of 18 knots and a radius of 5000 miles. She has perfected rapid-fire guns for air craft, with which the boats are equipped and can be got ready in less than a minute. All of these crafts are painted a brownish gray to make them hard to distinguish.

The lecturer also gave the Germans credit for excelling in the science of optics, having evolved the best and most ingenious periscopes. The reason why the boats had not gained great speed as yet, was explained by the fact that the submersibles had to be built to withstand great pressure and also because they needed two power plants, one for surface operations and the other for underwater work. Twenty knots are now attained and faster submarines may be expected now that one power plant for both overwater and underwater operations is coming into use.

Rheumatism is quite frequent among the sailors of the underwater craft, and in a great many instances the silver fillings in their teeth fall out because of the sulphur fumes that are generally liberated. Explosions are very infrequent nowadays, he said, because of better batteries, ventilation, and the use of crude oil instead of gasoline. The speaker mentioned the loss of the United States Submarine F-4, and said that its loss could be due to any one of a dozen reasons. He stated that if any water should by chance enter the boat the water and the sulphuric acid found in all submarine craft would generate chlorine fumes, which are deadly.

Submersion is accomplished in about three minutes, when about ten years ago it took about half an hour. Lieutenant Miles said that there was no sensation in diving except the common one of slight tilting, stories to the contrary being nothing but imagination. A fallacy believed by many people is that the crew must keep still so as not to disturb the equilibrium. They may move about as freely as sailors on an ordinary steamer, said the lecturer. Air supply can be maintained for about four days, theoretically, and enough food stored for a month's consumption. Tuesday, April 13



The Club tendered this evening a dinner to George Macaulay Trevelyan, of London, which was well attended by the members. At the head table seated with the guest of the evening were, Vice-Presidents James W. Rollins and W. T. A. Fitzgerald; Hon. Robert Luce; Hon. Calvin Coolidge, President of the Senate; his Honor the Mayor of Boston, James M. Curley; Hon. Edmund Billings; Rustom Rustomjee; Dr. David Snedden; Hon. Josiah Quincy; Dr. Edgar F. Haines, First Lieutenant, U. S. A.; Bernard J. Rothwell; James P. Munroe; Charles L. Burrill; March G. Bennett; and Civic Secretary, Addison L. Winship.

The speech-making which followed the banquet began when VicePresident James W. Rollins called the members to order, and introduced Hon. Robert Luce as toastmaster.

Mr. Luce then introduced Hon. Calvin Coolidge, President of the Massachusetts Senate, who, speaking for the State of Massachusetts, said: "Mr. Toastmaster. Since the old State House that stands at the

head of State Street, which used to be known as King Street, still bears the decoration of the lion and the unicorn, perhaps it is somewhat fitting that some one who has connection with your newer State House should express to your guest this evening something of the gratitude and something of the appreciation, and something of the welcome that you wish extended to him, in behalf of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. And though I cannot speak, sir, as a member of this Club; yet, I am sure that I voice the sentiments of all of you in wishing him a most cordial welcome.

"It has not been unusual for men coming from England to turn almost directly to the hospitality that this Club has extended to strangers visiting our shores. I presume there are many of you present who recall the welcome to Alfred Tennyson Dickens when he came here a short time ago, and the welcome which was extended to him by the Commonwealth. We also welcome Mr. Trevelyan here as the representative of a great nation, and as one of a great race with which many of us are affiliated.

"Many of our institutions are similar to British institutions, many of us carry in our veins the blood that the British carry in theirs. It is a pleasure to welcome as a representative of that race, a scholar and a literary man, and a representative of a family that has been known in English literature for many years.'

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Then followed speeches of welcome and appreciation by Messrs. Snedden, Rustomjee, Quincy, and Lieutenant Haines.

Adjourning to the Auditorium Toastmaster Luce, after describing some of his impressions of the Balkan States, and after citing Macaulay's somewhat gloomy prophecy for the United States, as yet unfulfilled—introduced with felicitous words the speaker of the evening, who had a cordial welcome from the audience of members and their guests.


"Mr. Luce and Gentlemen. This is the first time that I have ever addressed an American audience, and I am well aware that the art of lecturing has been carried to a very much higher pitch and is very much more an important and national institution on this side of the Atlantic than it is on the side from which I come, and I am very much afraid that I shall not be up to the standard, especially as I am not essentially the professional lecturer but a writer. Nevertheless, I feel encouraged to-night because I do not think that I could try my apprentice hand under circumstances more encouraging and congenial and, may I say homely, than those under which I will endeavor to adress you to-night. (Applause.)

"For I am not, as an English historian, entirely unfamiliar with the history of New England and I think I know a little, though not nearly as much as some elder members of my family, but I know, at any rate, a little about the history of your country at its two crises, the one from

which it originated and the one from which it survived. So to me this beautiful spring day that I have spent in Boston and in Cambridge has been a day-although it has been a very busy one-very moving to me as I have seen these great historical scenes, of which I have read so often and thought so much. They seemed to me to concentrate themselves around those two places which you can scarcely regard as centres of romance. I mean the Common at Harvard and the Common down here at Boston. I will only say, as an example of the sort of feeling I mean, that when I came around the corner of your street to-day and suddenly and quite unexpectedly found myself in the presence of St. Gaudens' Shaw Monument I felt a thrill quite as great as any which could be felt coming unexpectedly upon some historical monument in Italy. I congratulate your great country in not being in the throes of another great crisis.

"I have been invited by you to speak, not on the central subjects of this war as affecting England and her greatest antagonist, which would be a most improper proceeding on my part over here, but I have been invited to address you on the subject of the near Eastern question. I prefer to call it the near Eastern question rather than the Balkan question, for reasons which will appear; and I think there is a special reason why Americans may be interested to hear a little about the near Eastern question, not only because, probably, you in America, just as we in England know less about the near East than we do about the other parts of Europe but also because, as a matter of fact, Serbia, which is rather the centre of what I am going to talk about to-night, is at this moment, and has been for many months past, the scene of heroic and largely successful action on the part of many American as well as English doctors and nurses in the struggle with mortal wounds, and mortal disease, and your doctors and nurses, like ours, have given up their lives and are now giving up their lives in the endeavor to save the Serbians from the ravages of typhus, and you are still sending out more and more of your men, some of them your very best men, some of them, like Dr. Strong who came from this neighborhood. And you may like, partly for that reason, as well as general interest in anything pertaining to the horrible catastrophe of the European War, to know a little bit more about the near East, and particularly the Serbian question.

"I am afraid it is beyond my capacity to assure you that you should not only hear what I say, but also see this map as clearly as I could wish, but I feel it is quite impossible to make the near Eastern question at all understood, except with the help of a map, and a map of a very peculiar kind, which I have accordingly had made in London from another map drawn by a number of very eminent ethnologists of the Balkan peninsula, a map which the colors indicate not the political divisions, but the racial divisions, so far as they can be represented at all, and I would point out to you that the fundamental aspects of this map, which has the racial divisions represented by the colors, do not correspond to the political divisions represented by the lines.

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