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spindles, and 112 revolutions of the front roll. Our seveninch traverse and two-inch ring we are running eight thousand. But if the spindle will carry the load, all right. (Mind you, I wish to be careful because I do not want any of you to say I got you into a scrape.) I am rather of the opinion that the time will come when we will run a seven-inch traverse and two-inch ring as fast as we are running the inch and five eighths ring and the five and one half inch traverse to-day. In other words, I have found no difficulty in spinning at eight thousand revolutions of the spindle and a little over one hundred revolutions of the front roll with the seven-inch traverse and two-inch ring. Our spinners say it is the best spinning that we have in the mill; and as a matter of fact we pay less money for running those spindles. I just figured it out a few moments ago, and I find it cost us thirty one hundredths of a cent to spin on the seven-inch traverse and thirty-five one hundredths of a cent to spin on the six-inch traverse. I have one boy who runs 1792 spindles with seveninch traverse and two-inch ring. All the spindles in that mill are arranged that way. I think that Mr. Draper's separator will settle the speed.

Mr. ECCLES. I would like to ask Mr. KNIGHT if there is any difference in the yarn, if the yarn is as smooth with the seven-inch traverse. I should think it would be apt to make the thread rather rough.

Mr. KNIGHT. I have found that thing, that if you run a light traveller it is very apt to leave fibres standing out on the yarn. I do not know what you refer to, exactly, by smoothness; whether you mean unevenness in the yarn itself?

Mr. ECCLES. I mean just smoothness in the yarn, freedor from the fibres.

Mr. KNIGHT. Well, the only way I have of judging is we keep a record every day of the number of ends that down in running a beam on the warper; we have a little board ; and every time a thread breaks in running a ber girl makes a mark. There is a line drawn through the

as in the

siderable experience with this seven-inch ring and two-inch traverse, and I would like to call on him.

Mr. S. N. BOURNE. I do not know that I have much to add to what Mr. Knight has said. If anybody looks at it as a matter of economy, that is all there is to it. With the competition we have now, we must cut corners where we can; and I think we can spin cheaper with a two-inch ring and seven-inch traverse. I have quite a number of them running, and see no reason for changing.

Mr. DRAPER. I would like to ask Mr. KNIGHT how much slower he thinks it necessary to run spindles on No. 28 yarn, using a seven-inch traverse and two-inch ring, than to run spindles with a five and a half inch traverse and an inch and five eighths ring, to get the same result. I mean in spinning; so that one girl will tend the same number of spindles in each case, and keep the ends up as well in one case other.

Mr. KNIGHT. I wish to say that I did not present the seveninch traverse and two-inch ring. I know that my fellowmembers on the Board of Government expected that I would. But I did not want to come before this august assembly and tell

you about something that I did not know anything about. And I think I do know, and I feel perfectly safe in saying, that the six-inch traverse and inch and three quarters ring are perfectly safe things for a man to run on No. 28 yarn. I believe also that the seven-inch traverse and two-inch ring are all right. But if I was going to say to-day what I believe to be the most economical thing, all things considered, for a manufacturer to do, I would say this, that for No. 28 yarn he had better put in a six-inch traverse and two-inch ring. Now, Mr. Draper asked me how much slower it is necessary to run a seven-inch traverse than a five and one half inch traverse. I will say we are now running the six-inch (mind you, that is what I was talking about in the report, the six-inch traverse and inch and three quarters ring) at about the same speed run in first-class mills; that is to say, 9100 revolutions of the spindles, and 112 revolutions of the front roll. Our seveninch traverse and two-inch ring we are running eight thousand. But if the spindle will carry the load, all right. (Mind you, I wish to be careful because I do not want any of you to say I got you into a scrape.) I am rather of the opinion that the time will come when we will run a seven-inch traverse and two-inch ring as fast as we are running the inch and five eighths ring and the five and one half inch traverse to-day. In other words, I have found no difficulty in spinning at eight thousand revolutions of the spindle and a little over one hundred revolutions of the front roll with the seven-inch traverse and two-inch ring. Our spinners say it is the best spinning that we have in the mill; and as a matter of fact we pay less money for running those spindles. I just figured it out a few moments ago, and I find it cost us thirty one hundredths of a cent to spin on the seven-inch traverse and thirty-five one hundredths of a cent to spin on the six-inch traverse. I have one boy who runs 1792 spindles with seveninch traverse and two-inch ring. All the spindles in that mill are arranged that way. I think that Mr. Draper's separator will settle the speed.

Mr. ECCLES. I would like to ask Mr. KNIGHT if there is any difference in the yarn, if the yarn is as smooth with the seven-inch traverse. I should think it would be apt to make the thread rather rough.

Mr. KNIGHT. I have found that thing, that if you run a light traveller it is very apt to leave fibres standing out on the yarn. I do not know what you refer to, exactly, by smoothness; whether you mean unevenness in the yarn

itself? Mr. EccLEs. I mean just smoothness in the yarn, freedom from the fibres.

Mr. Knight. Well, the only way I have of judging is this : we keep a record every day of the number of ends that break down in running a beam on the warper; we have a little blackboard ; and every time a thread breaks in running a beam, the girl makes a mark. There is a line drawn through the middle of the black-board, and we put the number of the spool-attender above or below; and there is a mark put down against her number every time the thread breaks in warping. And I can say we have less ends broken on the seven-inch traverse and two-inch ring than we do on the other. And we also keep a record in the weave room. I have two weavers go in Monday morning, one in the north end and one in the south end of each of our large weave rooms; and each is given a paper like this I hold in my hand, and she marks down the number of ends that are broken during the week on the last full warp that was put into her looms. And we have less breakages in weaving on the seven-inch traverse and the two-inch ring than we do on the other. We have nothing shorter than the six-inch and the inch and three quarters. I do not know of any other differences that would be worth anything to us. I think, if anything, the lighter the traveller you use in spinning, the more fuzzy the yarn looks; but it weaves better with the long traverse and large ring.

There is one thing I might say about power. This report that I gave you on power is not the power in our mill. We drive in our mill about eighty-two spindles per horse-power, with six-inch traverse and inch and three quarters ring. This that I gave you was sixty-eight and seventy-two; seventy-two with the five and one half inch traverse and sixty-eight spindles with the six-inch traverse. In our mill, for some reason, the lightness of the bobbins or something else, -- I do not know exactly how, - but, as shown by experiment, we have been enabled to drive, on an average, eighty-two spindles per horsepower.

The PRESIDENT. Is there any other member who would like to say a word on this subject? It is something that is very important.

A MEMBER. I would like to ask Mr. BOURNE how much it costs him to spool his seven-inch traverse.

Mr. Knight. I would like to put it another way and ask him how much he has saved.

The PRESIDENT. Will you please answer the questions, Mr. BOURNE ? Answer both of them, please.

Mr. BOURNE. Well, we were running formerly what Mr. Knight has been advocating ; namely, a six-inch traverse and inch and three quarters ring

Mr. KNIGHT. Not on twenty-eight yarn?

Mr. BOURNE. No; not on twenty-eight yarn, but from twenty-twos to coarser. And we have made a change from an inch and three quarters ring to a two-inch ring and a seveninch traverse; and we save fully half the doffing and one half the expense of spooling. And that, in a coarse mill, is quite an item. For you fellows running on very fine numbers, it would not be worth talking about. But we spool by the job, of course.

The PRESIDENT. I presume they are drifting, in most mills, in that direction; to larger rings and a longer traverse.

Mr. BOURNE. I do not think it would have been possible to do it without the improved separator. We must have the latest separator, I think, — such an one as made by the DRAPERS, or the Lowell Machine Shop. I do not think we could do it with one of the old ones. This has made it possible to change to the longer traverse.

Mr. KNIGHT. I will say that the separator we use is three and one half inches wide.

The PRESIDENT. If there is nothing more to be said on this topic, we will pass to the next;

“Methods of making up Costs." Mr. HENRY F. LIPPITT, of the Manville and Social Manufacturing Companies, if he is present, will open the subject.

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