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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XI
FRANCISCANS to GIBSON

NEW YORK
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1910

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,

by
The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.

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INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED,

A. B. R.

A. B. W. K.

A. Ca.

A. E. H. L.

A. E. S.

A. Ge.

A. Go.

A. G. B.

{

A. G. D.

A. H. Sm.

ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S.

Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Fruit.

Classification of Flowering Plants; &c.
SIR ALEXANDER BLACKIE WILLIAM KENNEDY, LL.D., F.R.S.
Emeritus Professor of Engincering, University College, London. Consulting

Friction.
Engineer to Board of Ordnance.
ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S.

Gauss.
See the biographical article, CAYLEY, ARTHUR.
AUGUSTUS EDWARD Hough Love, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Hon. Function: Fundions of
Fellow of Queen's College: formerly Follow of St John's College, Cambridge. Real Variables.

Secretary to the London Mathematical Society.
ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge.' Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. Gastrotricha.

Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, LL.D.

Geology.
See the biographical article, GEIKIE, SIR A.
REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A.

Franck, Sebastian; Gallars.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
Hon. ARCHIBALD GRAEME BELL, M.INST.C.E.

Georgetown, British
Director of Public Works and Inspector of Mines, Trinidad. .Member of Executive

Guiana.
and Legislative Councils, Inst.C.E.
ARTHUR GEORGE DOUCHTY, C.M.G., M.A., LITT.D., F.R., Hist.S.
Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada.

Frontenac et Palluau.
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating

to the Constitutional History of Canada.
ARTHUR HAMILTON SMITH, M.A., F.S.A.

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. Gem: II. (in part).
Member of the imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue

of Greek Sculplure in the British Museum; &c.
Rev. ALLEN MENZIES, D.D.

Free Church of Scotland Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, University of St Andrews. Author of History of Religion ; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy.

(in parl);
AGNES MARY CLERKE.

See the biographical article, CLERKE, AGNES M.
ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

Frigate-Bird; Gadwall;
See the biographical article, NEWTON, ALFRED.

Ganpet; Gare Fowl.
ALFRED NEAVE BRAYSHAW, LL.B.

Author of Bible Notes on the Hebrew Prophels.
ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD, M.A.,'D.Sc., F.R.S.
Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of

and VII.
A Treatise on Universal Algebra; &c.
ALEXANDER Ross CLARKE, C.B., F.R.S.

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Royal Medallist, Royal Society, 1887. In charge of Geodesy (in part).

the trigonometrical operations of the Ordnance Survey, 1854-1881.
ALEXANDER STUART MURRAY, LL.D.
See the biographical article, MURRAY, ALEXANDER STUART.

Frederick II., Roman
ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND.

Emperor;
Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn,

French Revolution:
1900.

Republican Calendar; Germany: History (in part

and Bibliography. 1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

A. M.*

{
{Galileo

.

A. M. C.

A. N.

A. N. B.

{Friends

, Society of

A. N. W.

A. R. C.

A. S. M.

{Gem: IL (in part).

A. W. H.

A. W. W.

B. A. W. R.

B. S. P.

C. B.

C. D. W.

{Friendlies Societies:

C. E.

ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, LITT.D., LL.D.

{Garrick

, David (in part).
See the biographical article, Ward, A. W.
Hon. BERTRAND Arthur WILLIAM RUSSELL, M.A., F.R.S.

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Foundations of Geometry: VI. (in part).

Geometry; Principles of Mathematics; &c.
BERTAA SURTEES PHILPOTTS, M.A. (Dublin).

Germany: Archaeology.
Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge.
CHARLES BÉMONT, Litt.D. (Oxon.).

Fustel De Coulanges;
See the biographical article, BÉMONT, C.

Gascony
HON. CARROLL DAVIDSON WRIGHT.
See the biographical article, WRIGHT, Hon. CARROLL DAVIDSON.

United States.
CHARLES EVERITT, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Geometry: History,
Franco-German War

(in parl);
Charles FRANCIS ATKINSON.

French Revolutionary
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, ist City of London Wars: Military
(Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.

Operations;
Germany: Army;

Gibraltar: History,
CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member Gelasius II.

of the American Historical Association. CLEMENT KING SHORTER.

Editor of The Sphere. Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Lileralure; Immortal Gaskell, Elizabeth.

Memories; The Brontës, Life and Lellers; &c.
CHEDOMILLE MIJATOVICH.

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotea-Garashanin.,

C. F. A.

C. H. Ha.

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C. K. S.

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C. Mi.

C. M. K.

SIR CHARLES MALCOLM KENNEDY, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1831-1908).

Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872-1893: Lecturer on Inter.
national Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in the Levant, 1870-1871,
at Paris, 1872-1886. Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882.

Editor Free Ports.
of Kennedy's Ethnological and Linguistic Essays; Diplomacy and International
Law.

C. Pl.

C. R. B.

CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D.-ÈS.-L.

Franks;
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author
of Etudes sur le règne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duché mérovingien d'Alsace et la legende Fredegond;
de Sainte-Odile.

Germanic Laws, Early.
CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography: Gerard of Cremona.
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of

Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
CLAUDE REGNIER CONDER, LL.D.

Galilee (in part);
Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly in command of Survey of Palestine. Author

C. R. C.

C. T.

{
{Gate

.

C. We.

C. W. W.

Rev. CHARLES TAYLOR, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1908).

Formerly Master of St John's College, Cambridge. Vice-Chancellor, Cambridge Geometrical Continuity.

University, 1887-1888. Author of Geometrical Conics; &c.
CECIL WEATHERLY.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.
SIR Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907).

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com.
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-Generai Galilee, Sea of (in part).
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korli to Kharloum; Life of

Lord Clive; &c.
DUGALD CLERK, M.INST.C.E., F.R.S.

Director of the National Gas Engine Co., Ltd. Inventor of the Clerk Cycle Gas Gas

Engine.
DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The

Fugue.
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical

works.
DAVID HANNAY.

French Revolutionary Wars:
Formerly British Vice-consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Naval Operations.
Navy, 1217-1088; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.

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